The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different companies in the stock market. Project portfolio management is an important activity that influences the business units’ strategies and thus investment decisions. The study focuses on ascertaining the optimality of the project portfolio decisions by evaluating how they are formulated and managed. Besides, the systematic risk is determined by the macroeconomic conditions and financial systems.
This report provides risk-return analysis by utilizing the Markowitz portfolio theory, the return on investment, expected return rate, variance, and standard deviation. Moreover, the study evaluates the relationship between the returns and the market portfolio by using the security market line(SML), beta coefficient, residual variance, correlation, and determination coefficient.
The report uses the following selected portfolio: Best Buy Co., Microsoft, Boeing Company, and Wal-Mart Stores, which constitutes actively selected portfolio(P1); CIT Group, MetLife, NVIDIA Inc., and American Express Company, which forms randomly selected company (P2); while the passive selected portfolio(P3) includes AT&T, Pennant Park Investment Inc., Medley Capital Corp., and Hercules Capital.
The stock purchased based on the performance in the market where actively selected portfolios were considered. However, the randomly selected portfolio is essential in making an optimal decision for investment purposes. This is due to the effect of portfolio theory that allows for portfolio diversification to minimize the risk while maximizing the returns for risk-averse investors. Furthermore, the passive portfolio is useful for the purposes of evaluating the effectiveness of the selected investment appraisal techniques.
This section involves a description of selected companies’ revenues, financial solvency, and financial position. The reason for selecting such companies in my portfolio are outlined in this section—the explanation based on the portfolio as P1, P2, or P3 discusses below.
P1 constitutes for companies, namely Best Buy Co., Microsoft, Boeing Company, and Wal-Mart Stores. Best Buy Co.(BBY) is a competitive provider of technological products, services, and solutions globally. The company provides affordable consumer products to different classes of consumers, small and medium businesses, either through their stores or online. The company has developed a variety of innovations to ensure all consumers globally are served. This is achieved by using a website platform(BestBuy.com), Best Buy App, or by use of engagement of company agents (Geek Squad Agents). The company’s operations are diversified across the world, with its brands traded in different countries with its headquarters in Richfield, Minnesota, U.S. The company is ranked as the best performing company in innovation, evident by its development of a unique chain of stores. The company reported an increase in revenues as of F.Y. 2020 by 1.8% increase from $42.88 billion, while the net income increase by 5.5% from $1.46 billion as of F.Y. 2019 to $1.54 billion for F.Y. 2020, which exceeds the analysts forecasted net income of $1.53 billion which is an increase by 0.65%. Moreover, the company assets increased by 20.85% from $12.9 billion in 2019 to $15.59 billion as of F.Y. 2020.
The second company under P1 is Microsoft Corporation(MSFT). MSFT is one of the largest multinational companies dealing in proprietary software for various kinds of computer technology. Microsoft’s financial results have remained very positive for the company over the years. For the fiscal year 2020, total revenues amounted to over $ 143.02 billion, an 13.65% increase over the year before. Fundamental indicators are also very stable and positive. The debt load of the company is extremely low – the Debt / Equity ratio, which determines the debt-to-equity ratio, is only 1.31. ROE 8.82% and ROA is 0.65%. The yield of the company’s securities is higher than in the industry. Thus, the company and industry’s diluted earnings per share are $ 6.20 and $ 1.97, respectively, with a profitability ratio of 30.96%.
The third company for P1 is Boeing Company(B.A.) and is the world’s largest aviation, space, and military equipment in the third quarter. The company received $ 76.56 billion for the F.Y. 2019, adjusted net income per share was $ 2.72. At the end of 2019 year, Boeing expects revenue in the range of $ 90.5- $ 92.5 billion and a profit of $ 9.9- $ 10.1 per share. Boeing has significantly strengthened its position in the civil aircraft industry by expanding the line of popular 737 aircraft and Airbus’s failure with sales of the A380. According to Boeing General Director Dennis Muilenburg, in the past quarter, Boeing put record 202 commercial aircraft and increased 737 MAX aircraft production.
The last company in P1 is Walmart Inc.(WMT), an American company that manages the world’s largest wholesale and retail trade network operating under Walmart’s trademark. Its earnings per share(EPS) is 6.93, while the P.E. Ratio is 17.41. This is implying a positive dividends performance for the company in the industry. Simultaneously, despite the effect of a very high base, the retail giant is steadily growing, and almost every quarter, its revenues increase by 0.5-2%. Its shares rise in price by 2.5%.
The second portfolio includes such companies as CIT Group, MetLife, NVIDIA Corporation, and American Express Company. Citigroup Inc is one of the largest international financial conglomerates. The conglomerate’s basis is Citibank, founded in 1812 and is one of the four largest U.S. banks. Citigroup is a large financial corporation, which has many financial units that carry out international activities, working in about 140 countries around the world. Now the company employs about 250 thousand employees. The approximate cash equivalent of Citigroup assets is 1.75 trillion dollars.
MetLife Inc. is the leading international holding in the field of insurance and pensions. Its revenue increased by 9.5% to $ 18.7 billion, and net profit jumped by almost 2/3 – to $ 2.16 billion, while the previous year the figure did not exceed 1.33 billion. Earnings per share amounted to 1.87 dollars per share against 1.14 dollars a year earlier. Such results were much better than the market forecasts – average investors’ expectations for revenue were $ 17.8 billion, and for operating profit per share, $ 1.41 (actual value is $ 1.44). As a result, the company’s shares at the opening of trading on the day following the report’s publication grew by 0.6% to $ 52.10.
NVIDIA Corporation is a leading American company dealing in graphics accelerators and processors and developer of system logic. Over the years, the share of NVIDIA in the market of discrete graphics cards has grown from 70.5% to 72.5%. AMD’s share decreased from 29.5% to 27.5%. NVIDIA’s shares are growing rapidly, and the “mania of mining,” which will bring big profits to video card manufacturers, plays an important role in this. Today NVIDIA shares may seem expensive, but investors should understand that the chip manufacturer has enough trump cards in its sleeve. This year, analysts forecast an increase in NVIDIA revenues and profits by 19% and 20%, respectively. The company has a lot of development opportunities. Although its shares may temporarily slow down or fall in price, they have enough potential for long-term growth.
Finally, American Express Company (Amex) is an American financial corporation that provides mainly consumer finance services for the issue and maintenance of payment and credit cards. American Express works with both individuals and legal entities. In the world, the number of branded cards issued by the company is 88 million pieces, and their turnover for nine months of 2016 exceeded $ 750 billion. We expect that the company’s ROE will exceed 25%, while the result of 2017, according to our estimates, should be lower than the result of the 2016 year due to one-time incomes received in the past year.
For this portfolio, the selected companies include AT&T, Medley Capital Corporation, Pennant Park Investment Corporation, and Hercules Capital.
The first company in P3 is AT&T. This is a telecommunication company whose headquarter is in Dallas, Texas, in America. The company is the largest global telecommunication company that provides both local and regional telephone services. The company is also the largest supplier of direct satellite broadcasting in the U.S. through DirecTV. It takes 18th place in the list of the largest cellular operators in the world with 135 million subscribers. It has the highest dividend yield among Dow Jones components – about 5.2%. The company successfully develops, generates solid cash flows, and carries out buyback programs. In the first quarter of 2014, earnings per share increased by 11%. Free cash flow for shareholders was $ 3 billion. Dividends for the first quarter were $ 0.46 per share; they steadily increased during the last decade.
Medley Capital Corporation is an investment company whose objective is to generate income while investing in capital products either directly through lending or buying securities from private companies in North America. The corporation has helped develop small and medium companies to expand their operation through financing or acquisition. The majority of its investment assures warrants and other beneficial equity participation characteristics, which the company uses as a strategy to achieve its positive investment returns. The company’s total value of the investment has been growing with the end of F.Y. 2017 amounts to $835.9 million. This is associated with over 68 portfolio investments in different companies with senior secured loans account 67% as first-lien, senior secured lien amounts to 12.7%, while warrants or equities constituted 20.3%.
The next company is PennantPark Investment Corporation. From inception in 2007 to the end of 2017, PennantPark deployed approximately $7 billion into over 500 companies with more than 180 sponsors. The company operates with different subsidiaries with PennantPark Investment Corporation and PennantPark Floating Rate Capital, Ltd., Forming the company’s publicly traded businesses. As of the end of the financial year 2016, the company had invested over $229.3 million in different portfolios with a yield of 11.2% of the investment.
Finally, Hercules Capital is among the P3 companies selected. The company has been growing with different motives as driven by the vision of serving the needs of entrepreneurs and public investors, as highlighted by the CEO and the founder chairman of the company in the year 2003. The company strives for alternative investment opportunities that stimulate a good venture in the world market. To achieve the strategy, built of Hercules Capital, which was publicly traded were essential and consequently led to listing in NYSE as a Business Development Company(BDC) as an enterprise having an excess value of $1.6 million, with a market cap of $1.0 million. The company is globally recognized as the largest non-bank source of financing for entrepreneurs to accomplish their goals and expand their capital base.
This section provides an in-depth analysis of the portfolio for purposes of evaluating the portfolio Risk, Return, variance, and standard deviation while making a comparison with other portfolios, that is, P1, P2, and P3. Under each type of portfolio, the selected stocks are analyzed using different approaches. It is noted that the selected stock in each portfolio varies from others since they were picked from different sectors in the stock market. The data used for analysis utilizes the financial year 2020 historical data obtained from the website.
The following is my actively selected portfolio(P1):
Name of Company
Closing prices (2020), $
Number of shares
Proportion of Share in portfolio
Calculating portfolio parameters
To effectively compute the portfolio parameters, return and risk of the portfolio, the study utilizes the weekly prices uploaded from historical data of each stock and S&P index for the financial year 2020. The changes in parameters and the entire portfolio, thus calculated for the report analysis.
The expected returns are measured from weekly returns. The risk element of stock or portfolio is measured in terms of standard deviation from the portfolio theory. Therefore utilizing the above stock parameters and the S&P index parameters, we can compute the expected returns and the standard deviation.
Share in portfolio
Standard Deviation (s)
Calculating the Risk and Return for Portfolio
The purpose of creating a portfolio by investors is to achieve optimal investment by diversification of non-systematic risks. The comparison of average risk and return is essential in analyzing a well-performing stock and shares’ sensitivity to market parameters. To determine our stock’s performance with respect to the S&P index, we compute the correlations between the stocks.
The portfolio risk is given by the formula;
RP= SWi *Ri
Wi is the weight of stock i,
Ri is the returns stock i
Share in portfolio
The return our portfolio(Rp) is 0.634%. This imply that, our portfolio is not good since it is less than the S&P index (1.83%).
To evaluate if our portfolio is optimal is calculate the portfolio risk. The portfolio risk as measured by the standard deviation is computed as follows.
Step 1: Determine the weights of the stock
Step 2: Determine the Expected returns
The first two steps presented in above table 1.
Step 3: Establish Variance Covariance Matrix
Step 4: Compute the standard deviation
The portfolio variance from the above computation is given by 0.001947. The standard deviation is the square root of portfolio variance, that is, 0.044128. Therefore, comparing to S&P index of 1.83%, our portfolio is better off and thus less risky than the S&P index.
This is a measure of excess return over a unit of risk.
Using this analysis, investors should choose stock with a higher SR since it assures a higher excess return for every unit of risk undertaken. Therefore, in our portfolio, Boeing is the optimal choice.
Markowitz’s portfolio theory provides a trade-off mechanism for risk tolerance and reward expectations for a given portfolio taking into account the goal of maximizing the returns at a minimum level of risk while diversifying the other securities. The theory assumes that investors are risk-averse and prefer less risky portfolio for any given returns(Mangram, 2013). Using this theory, the analysis utilizes efficient frontiers of a portfolio where the only portfolio under feasible points is considered optimal. To effectively make this analysis, the report takes a randomly selected portfolio and tries to establish the maximum return of the portfolio.
First, I compute the individual stock’s expected returns as shown below.
Computing the Individual stock risk and return
Step 1: Determine the expected returns
Expected Return (Ri)
Step 2: Computing the Covariance matrix
Step 3: computing the portfolio risk and standard deviation
Portfolio return is 0.0424346, it is noted that the initial portfolio return equivalent to zero since the weights of stocks are zero. The calculated portfolio risk is equal to 0.002486 implying a minimum risk, and good investment opportunity.
To conclude the comparison, using the same criteria, I analyzed the passive portfolio. The passive portfolio comprise the stock of T, MCC, PNNT, and HTGC.
Portfolio Risk and Standard deviation
The portfolio return equals 0.009509, while the portfolio risk is equal to 0.000684. This depicts a lower risk for the portfolio.
The beta factor is an essential measure of the sensitivity of securities concerning the market. The factor is useful in the CAPM model as it describes the relationship between expected return and the overall systematic risk. This model is critical in the valuation of risky securities and making optimal decisions by risk averse investors (Bradfield, 2003). In essence, the beta depicts the swings in the market and the appropriate response for investment in such a security.
The beta values of my portfolio are the calculated below.
Share in portfolio
Share in portfolio
American Express Company
Share in portfolio
Medley Capital Corporation
PennantPark Investment Corporation
Beta values have different implications as they depict the stock’s volatility with respect to the whole market. If the value is 1, the portfolio sensitivity moves like that of the market, while a higher beta ( more than 1) implies greater volatility and high risk and vise versa for a lower beta. Besides, a higher beta implying high volatility of the stock and thus riskier has a great potential for high returns. On the contrary, the beta with a lower value is less risky but has low returns.
The portfolio is a collection of securities with the aim of diversifying the systematic risk as proposed by the portfolio theory. The portfolio analysis is essential in evaluating the investment decision for different investors depending on their perceived risk attitude. The portfolio analysis is part of and parcel of managerial functions in maximizing shareholders’ wealth goals and thus demands well-informed choices. Therefore, strategic decisions in portfolio evaluation need focus and necessitates development and mapping for strategic portfolio change. The portfolio of projects consisted of projects and other related work in strategic implementation. These projects contribute to the organization of their mission and vision. Projects the projects’ portfolio was a priority based on their strategic importance, financial benefits, types of projects, the complexity of the project, the level of risk, and resource requirements. The Necessary project decision is essential and should be accepted, based on a separate adoption in accordance with the policy approval group before its implementation. These results can be used in further studies and improve the effectiveness of the portfolio. Therefore, a portfolio was created which will bring a real profit. Estimating the effectiveness of a particular portfolio includes a periodic determination of execution and implementation of the portfolio, taking into account cash flows received and the accompanying risk as evaluated with respect to the investor’s risk attitude.
Bradfield, D. (2003). Investment Basics XLVI. On estimating the beta coefficient. Investment Analysts Journal, 32(57), 47-53.
Mangram, M. E. (2013). A simplified perspective of the Markowitz portfolio theory. Global Journal of Business Research, 7(1), 59-70.
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Evidence-based practice in nursing has become vital to improving the quality of care provided to patients. Incorporating evidence-based practice into nursing significantly improves patient outcomes and patient, family, and healthcare provider satisfaction. On the other hand, it can reduce costs and the risk of maltreatment by cutting down on avoidable tests and procedures.
What is Evidence-based Practice in Nursing?
Evidence-based Practice (EBP) is an approach to healthcare that utilizes up-to-date research available to improve patient health and safety to reduce overall cost and variability in health outcomes. EBP can also be described as a problem-solving approach to the delivery of health care with the integration of the best evidence from well-designed studies and patient care data while combining it with patient preferences, values, and nurse expertise.
Process of Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing
Evidence-based practice has seven steps, which are numbered from zero to six. So, here is a brief overview of each step in the EBP process.
Step Zero: Cultivate a Spirit of Inquiry
To cultivate the spirit of inquiry, you must ask curious questions. For instance: in patients with head trauma, how does supine positioning compared with elevating the head of the bed 30 degrees affect intracranial pressure? By asking this kind of question, you lay the foundation for EBP. Without this spirit of inquiry, the successful steps in the EBP process won’t follow.
Step 1: Ask Clinical Questions in PICOT Format
Inquiries in the PICOT format take into account the patient population of interest (P), intervention (I), comparison intervention or group (C), outcome (O), and time (T). The PICOT format offers an efficient framework for searching electronic databases designed to retrieve articles only relevant to the clinical question. Taking the rapid response teams as an example, you can frame a question about whether the use of such teams will result in positive outcomes as follows: “In acute care hospitals (P), how does having a rapid response team (I) compared with not having a response team (C) affect the number of cardiac arrests (O) during four months (T).
Step 2: Search for the Best Evidence
The PICOT format offers the best way to search for evidence to inform clinical practice. For instance, if a nurse, in the rapid response case we used above, types “what is the impact of having a rapid response team?” into the search field of a database, she or he will have several abstracts, most of them irrelevant.
If the PICOT format is used, it will help identify the keywords or phrases that, if typed and combined well in the search engine, will find all the relevant articles for the question. In the PICOT question on rapid response teams, the key phrase to fill into the database search field would be acute care hospitals. This is a common subject that will yield thousands of citations and abstracts.
The second phrase to search would be rapid response team, then cardiac arrests, and the other remaining terms in the PICOT question. Lastly, combine the results of the searches for each of the terms to narrow the results to articles pertinent to the clinical question. Also, it helps to set limits on the final search.
Step 3: Critically Appraise the Evidence
Now that you have a selection of articles for review, you must appraise them to determine which ones are the most relevant, valid, reliable, and applicable to your clinical question. In this process, use the following three critical questions:
Are the results of the study valid? The question of validity is founded on whether the research methods are thorough enough to render findings as close to the truth as possible. Did the scholars randomly assign subjects to treatment or control groups and ensured shared key characteristics before treatment? Were valid and reliable tools used to measure key outcomes?
What are the results and are they important? For purposes of intervention, the question of study reliability addresses if the intervention worked, its impact on results, and the possibility of getting similar outcomes in the nurses’ practice settings. In qualitative studies, however, the question of reliability includes determining whether the research approach fits the purpose of the study, as well as other aspects of the research such as whether the results can be confirmed.
Will the results help me care for my patients?The question of study applicability covers clinical considerations such as whether subjects in the research are the same as one’s own patients, whether the benefits outweigh the risks, feasibility and cost-effectiveness, and patient values and preferences.
Step 4: Integrate the Evidence with Clinical Expertise and Patient Preferences and Values
Certainly, research evidence by itself is not enough to justify a change in practice. Clinical expertise, based on patient assessments, laboratory data, data from results management programs, and patient’s preferences and values are critical elements of evidence-based practice. Since there is no clear-cut formula for how to weigh each of these elements, the implementation of EBP is highly influenced by institutional and clinical variables.
For instance, there is evidence indicating reduced incidences of depression in burn patients if they get eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy before hospital discharge. You what your patients to receive the therapy up to the eighth session and so do they. However, the budget constraints your hospital experiences hinder it from hiring therapists to provide this treatment. So the resource shortage deters enactment of the evidence-based practice.
Step 5: Evaluate the Outcomes of the Practice Decision or Changes Based on the Evidence
Once an EBP is implemented, it is vital to monitor and evaluate any changes in outcomes to ensure positive effects are supported and negative ones remedied. Remember that because an intervention was successful in a thoroughly controlled trial does not imply it will equally be effective in the clinical setting.
Monitoring the effect of an EBP change on the health care quality and outcomes will help nurses spot flaws in application and identify the most precise way most patients can benefit. If the outcomes diverge from those reported in the research literature, monitoring will help find out why.
Step 6: Disseminate EBP Outcomes
Nurses can attain excellent outcomes for their patients through evidence-based practice, however, they often don’t share their experiences with fellow nurses in their own or other healthcare facilities. This leads to pointless replication of efforts and propagates clinical approaches that aren’t evidence-based.
One of the best ways to disseminate successful initiatives of EBP is by doing EBP rounds in your institution, presenting at local, regional, and national conferences, and reporting in peer-reviewed journals, publications, and professional newsletters.
Undoubtedly, the application of EBP in nursing has significantly increased in different hospitals and healthcare centers worldwide. Evidence-based practice project ideas offer a great way to gain valuable knowledge and practice while providing patient care. Furthermore, EBP offers an opportunity to help nurses by contributing to global healthcare.
Some of the most pressing evidence-based practice project ideasconcern medical surgery, geriatrics, midwifery, and management and leadership in nursing. Need some inspiring topics for your upcoming nursing EBP project? Look no further! Here are 40 nursing EBP project ideas you can consider in your nursing evidence based practice paper.
Latest 40 Nursing EBP Project Ideas You Can Use in your DNP Project
Senior nurses and attitude towards the application of evidence-based practice care solutions – a primary investigation
Evidence-based nursing practices for the disabled in inpatient settings in the US – literature review
Selection of treatment procedure through evidence-based practice – an analysis of nursing care
Evidence-based support for Continuing Professional Development requirements in nursing education – analysis of literature
Mental health nursing – perspectives from evidence-based practice in the US
Is care quality improved through evidence-based nursing? An investigation
A systematic investigation of the relationship link between nursing education and professional excellence in the US
Nursing staff screening and recruitment – an evidence-based approach
Why is evidence-based nursing and care highly recommended? An explorative analysis
A critical appraisal of the challenges in the implementation of evidence-based practice in nursing in the US
An analysis of the practical implications of the theoretical foundations for evidence-based nursing practice in the US
Safety precautions for patients with dementia in inpatient settings in the US based on evidence-based practice – review of literature
Catering to patient preferences through the evidence-based nursing approach – an analysis from the US
How do practitioners evaluate evidence-based nursing practices? An investigation
Tracing the historical context of evidence-based practice in nursing in the context of current achievements
What do nursing students think about evidence-based practice in nursing? A qualitative study
Palliative care in inpatient settings – a review of evidence-based practice perspectives in the US
Addressing the implementation gap between knowledge and practice in evidence-based nursing in the US
What is the impact of nursing leadership styles on the synthesis of evidence-based practice in Cardiac ICUs in the US? A primary exploration
The use of social media applications for the provision of evidence-based nursing care in the US – an investigation
What is the role of evidence-based practice in promoting collaborative decision-making in ICUs in the US?
A systematic review of the specialized evidence-based nursing practice models in the US and the UK
Evidence-based nursing evaluation and practice as an integral part of nursing education – a review
How do nurses translate evidence base into actual practice? A qualitative exploration of the quantity and quality of theoretical evidence translated into practice in the US
How relevant are PICOT guidelines in evidence-based nursing evaluations and practice care solutions? Review of literature
How do nurses define safety in practice – an evidence-based care approach
The evidence base for sexual abuse in developed and developing countries – a literature review
Evidence-based nursing in real-world contexts – an analysis
Is the evidence-based practice of a health concern universal or does it differ according to co-related determinants? An Investigation through peer-reviewed literature
What do nursing students think about evidence-based practice in nursing? A qualitative study
The collective knowledge of a nursing department based on evidence-based practice – how often does this happen?
Antibacterial foam dispenses effectiveness compared to simple washing of hands with water and soap in nursing units
Does the historical evidence point to the efficacy of analyzing evidence-based practice for nursing studies? A review
What is the best way to write a systematic review to maximize the efficacy of evidence-based practice? Insights from literature
Is evidence-based nursing effective in sharpening nurses’ critical thinking skills? Qualitative guidelines
Effects on oral contraceptives, especially on weight gain
NCLEX: When should you perfectly take it
How do nurses use evidence-based practice for self-care?
Professional wisdom or educated guidelines? An analysis of the impact of evidence-based practice on nurse care delivery in the US
Theories learned in nursing school: Are they applied in practice
Without a doubt, there are several great nursing EBP project ideas to choose from. So, figure out what works best for you and create a winning EBP project on your own. You can present the outcomes to your fellow nurses or publish your results in a nursing journal article for the rest of the nurses worldwide to read and practice.
Besides, if you are looking to get help with Nursing EBP project writing, don’t hesitate to place an order with us
A case study is an academic assignment that asks specific questions about issues, problems, or situations to help a professional or student identify and analyze the issues or problems in the given situation. It also offers suitable responses, preventative measures, or solutions to the problem or issues. A case study also requires the student to incorporate theoretical knowledge to solve the problem or issue arising from the situation.
Writing a case study assignment requires intensive investigation of the issue or problem, examination of all available alternative solutions, and giving recommendations for the most effective solutions to the problem based on evidence. If you want to write a successful case study, then be sure to have all the relevant materials and sources for the assignment.
Types of Case Studies
You may encounter different case study assignments as a university or college student. However, these different case studies depend on the subject or field you are pursuing. These are the most popular case studies you may encounter:
Descriptive Case Studies: These case studies describe a case to help others understand the problem or issues examined. These case studies are mainly used as a research method.
Cumulative Case Studies: These case studies require students to collect data and information from different sources at different times. They are common in qualitative research and are a method of data analysis to prevent avoidable new investigations.
Exploratory Case Studies: These are often used as outlines for more extensive research studies. These case studies will inform you why you might need large-scale research or not. These case studies are usually used in the social sciences and concentrate mainly on real-life cases.
Intrinsic Case Studies: Intrinsic case studies aim to provide in-depth research on case questions. It also allows for case study analysis by addressing what is available. The main focus in this type of case study is focusing on the subject and limiting the exploration of that particular case.
Instrumental Case Studies: These study cases are designed to address the components of the study through the use of student materials as the tool or instrument that leads to scientific evidence. Still, you will have to explain your outcomes.
Now that you understand the different types of case study writing, it will be easier to understand the step-by-step writing process.
A Steps-by-Step Case Study Writing Process
A case study assignment can prove challenging, especially when you need help figuring out where to start. However, below are steps to follow to get started!
Read the Case Study Questions and Understand
Before you start writing your case study, read the case study and the associated questions carefully. Identify the main issues, problems, or points of the case study. Analyze the questions to find out what they require you to do. Revisit the case study topic and link the relevant information to each question asked.
Determine the Issues or Problems in the Case Study
Case studies describe a scenario that may arise in a specific social context or field of study, thus involving many people in complex situations. Therefore, case studies will describe a problematic scenario, possibly in how it is handled or its intricacy. However, it is essential to analyze the scenario and determine the problem or actions described in the case that may be problematic.
Connect Theory to Practice
Utilize your knowledge of the current codes or practices, theories, or other scholarly documents and behaviors to determine what was done correctly and what was not. For instance, determine whether appropriate interviewing techniques were used or if people were interviewed in your case study.
Plan your Answer
Consider using the questions you set as your guidelines to answer each section of your case study. That way, you reduce the chance of forgetting the set question. You can then remove the heading before you submit your document for grading.
Begin Writing Your Case Study
Up to this point, you have everything you need for your case study. So, it is time to put it down on paper. Ascertain that your case study writing process is founded on the data and information gathered during preparation.
Make the introduction as clear to your reader as possible what topic you intend to discuss and how you intend to discuss it. If you have carefully read the questions, understood them, and researched and planned your answers, you will have a clear idea of what you will write.
Allow your introduction to transition from general to specific information. Most importantly, let the last sentence of your introduction be a thesis statement, and it should bring out what readers expect in a clear and precise manner.
The body paragraphs are where you discuss the case study. Depending on the number of questions you have set and how much discussion is involved in answering each question, decide on the number of paragraphs required.
Ideally, use four paragraphs to exhaustively discuss a complex question and one paragraph for a fundamental question. However, you need to have one main point for each paragraph. Consider including headings to clarify your answers while avoiding repetition or rambling. Bear in mind your total word count for your case study while you write. You can divide your body section as follows:
When writing a case study assignment, you must include background information and an excellent panoramic view of the issue or problem you intend to cover.
Presentation of Data
In case study writing, actual data must be presented. Including actual data will add credibility to the case you are trying to solve. Data can be derived from the questionnaires and interviews you conduct. Therefore, let the reader know what you learned from the questionnaires and interviews about the issue, its development, existing solutions, and expected outcome.
Be sure to provide the possible solutions for the case; you must provide the case itself along with the case solutions. For instance, you can refer to some of the statements by the respondents from your interview. The idea here is to give the reader a complete understanding of the issue or problem. Also, make recommendations on the possible solutions for the problem or issue under discussion.
Essentially, your case study conclusion should summarize all of the main points covered in the body paragraphs without introducing new ideas that need to be covered in the body. More importantly, make your conclusion as conclusive as possible.
Since a case study assignment is academic, adding references is very important. This is because references add credibility. So, use reliable referencing to make your case study credible, especially if you’re borrowing ideas from other authors.
Edit and Proofread Your Case Study
When you are done writing your case study, you need to edit and proofread your document. Correct any spelling inconsistencies, grammar mistakes, punctuation errors, and sentence structure, and ensure there is a smooth flow from one sentence to another. Most importantly, it ensures coherence and the transition of ideas from one paragraph to another.
If you are satisfied that your case study assignment document demonstrates that, if you were a professional handling that specific issue or problem, you would know the kind of procedures and policies to be followed or the actions to be taken to handle the problem professionally, then you can submit it for grading.
What to do to Improve your Case Study Assignment
Use relevant, trustworthy data or references.
A good case study must have trustworthy and reliable data and information. Case study assignments should always appeal to real situations. Therefore, use objective evidence and data to strengthen your assignment. If you can obtain actual data, consider using data that is as close to the real thing as possible.
Use a Clear and Easy Writing Style
Consider using a simple, easy, and involving writing style to catch your readers’ attention. Remember that formatting plays a more significant role in your case study assignment than you can imagine. Reading a long text with no heading, bolded text, graphs, bullet points, etc. can be monotonous. Therefore, make your case study assignment more readable and attractive by using these formatting methods wherever suitable.
Conduct the Research
When writing a case study assignment, always start by researching extensively and collecting as much information and data as possible about the case. That way, you will have a better understanding of the case. Also, gather reliable and trustworthy sources, ideally from journal articles, interviews, videos, and presentations.
Once you have all the information and data, analyze it and determine the essential facts for your case study topic. Develop an outline so that you have a straightforward plan to follow during writing.
At this point, you now know how to write a case study. However, if you experience any challenges in completing your case study assignment, you can avail of our case study assignment writing help. We are a top-rated case study assignment writing company with the trust and credibility to help students write exceptional case study assignments!