Portfolio Management Assignment Example

Executive Summary 

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different companies in the stock market. Project portfolio management is an important activity that influences the business units’ strategies and thus investment decisions. The study focuses on ascertaining the optimality of the project portfolio decisions by evaluating how they are formulated and managed. Besides, the systematic risk is determined by the macroeconomic conditions and financial systems. This report provides risk-return analysis by utilizing the Markowitz portfolio theory, the return on investment, expected return rate, variance, and standard deviation. Moreover, the study evaluates the relationship between the returns and the market portfolio by using the security market line(SML), beta coefficient, residual variance, correlation, and determination coefficient. The report uses the following selected portfolio: Best Buy Co., Microsoft, Boeing Company, and Wal-Mart Stores, which constitutes actively selected portfolio(P1); CIT Group, MetLife, NVIDIA Inc., and American Express Company, which forms randomly selected company (P2); while the passive selected portfolio(P3) includes AT&T, Pennant Park Investment Inc., Medley Capital Corp., and Hercules Capital.

1.1 Policy Statement 

The stock purchased based on the performance in the market where actively selected portfolios were considered. However, the randomly selected portfolio is essential in making an optimal decision for investment purposes. This is due to the effect of portfolio theory that allows for portfolio diversification to minimize the risk while maximizing the returns for risk-averse investors. Furthermore, the passive portfolio is useful for the purposes of evaluating the effectiveness of the selected investment appraisal techniques.

2.0 Strategy Implementation, the motive behind a particular stock selection and industry analysis

This section involves a description of selected companies’ revenues, financial solvency, and financial position. The reason for selecting such companies in my portfolio are outlined in this section—the explanation based on the portfolio as P1, P2, or P3 discusses below.

2.1 An actively selected portfolio (P1)

P1 constitutes for companies, namely Best Buy Co., Microsoft, Boeing Company, and Wal-Mart Stores. Best Buy Co.(BBY) is a competitive provider of technological products, services, and solutions globally. The company provides affordable consumer products to different classes of consumers, small and medium businesses, either through their stores or online. The company has developed a variety of innovations to ensure all consumers globally are served. This is achieved by using a website platform(BestBuy.com), Best Buy App, or by use of engagement of company agents (Geek Squad Agents). The company’s operations are diversified across the world, with its brands traded in different countries with its headquarters in Richfield, Minnesota, U.S. The company is ranked as the best performing company in innovation, evident by its development of a unique chain of stores. The company reported an increase in revenues as of F.Y. 2020 by 1.8% increase from $42.88 billion, while the net income increase by 5.5% from $1.46 billion as of F.Y. 2019 to $1.54 billion for F.Y. 2020, which exceeds the analysts forecasted net income of $1.53 billion which is an increase by 0.65%. Moreover, the company assets increased by 20.85% from $12.9 billion in 2019 to $15.59 billion as of F.Y. 2020. The second company under P1 is Microsoft Corporation(MSFT). MSFT is one of the largest multinational companies dealing in proprietary software for various kinds of computer technology. Microsoft’s financial results have remained very positive for the company over the years. For the fiscal year 2020, total revenues amounted to over $ 143.02 billion, an 13.65% increase over the year before. Fundamental indicators are also very stable and positive. The debt load of the company is extremely low – the Debt / Equity ratio, which determines the debt-to-equity ratio, is only 1.31. ROE 8.82% and ROA is 0.65%. The yield of the company’s securities is higher than in the industry. Thus, the company and industry’s diluted earnings per share are $ 6.20 and $ 1.97, respectively, with a profitability ratio of 30.96%. The third company for P1 is Boeing Company(B.A.) and is the world’s largest aviation, space, and military equipment in the third quarter. The company received $ 76.56 billion for the F.Y. 2019, adjusted net income per share was $ 2.72. At the end of 2019 year, Boeing expects revenue in the range of $ 90.5- $ 92.5 billion and a profit of $ 9.9- $ 10.1 per share. Boeing has significantly strengthened its position in the civil aircraft industry by expanding the line of popular 737 aircraft and Airbus’s failure with sales of the A380. According to Boeing General Director Dennis Muilenburg, in the past quarter, Boeing put record 202 commercial aircraft and increased 737 MAX aircraft production. The last company in P1 is Walmart Inc.(WMT), an American company that manages the world’s largest wholesale and retail trade network operating under Walmart’s trademark. Its earnings per share(EPS) is 6.93, while the P.E. Ratio is 17.41. This is implying a positive dividends performance for the company in the industry. Simultaneously, despite the effect of a very high base, the retail giant is steadily growing, and almost every quarter, its revenues increase by 0.5-2%. Its shares rise in price by 2.5%.

2.2 A randomly selected company (P2)

The second portfolio includes such companies as CIT Group, MetLife, NVIDIA Corporation, and American Express Company. Citigroup Inc is one of the largest international financial conglomerates. The conglomerate’s basis is Citibank, founded in 1812 and is one of the four largest U.S. banks. Citigroup is a large financial corporation, which has many financial units that carry out international activities, working in about 140 countries around the world. Now the company employs about 250 thousand employees. The approximate cash equivalent of Citigroup assets is 1.75 trillion dollars. MetLife Inc. is the leading international holding in the field of insurance and pensions. Its revenue increased by 9.5% to $ 18.7 billion, and net profit jumped by almost 2/3 – to $ 2.16 billion, while the previous year the figure did not exceed 1.33 billion. Earnings per share amounted to 1.87 dollars per share against 1.14 dollars a year earlier. Such results were much better than the market forecasts – average investors’ expectations for revenue were $ 17.8 billion, and for operating profit per share, $ 1.41 (actual value is $ 1.44). As a result, the company’s shares at the opening of trading on the day following the report’s publication grew by 0.6% to $ 52.10. NVIDIA Corporation is a leading American company dealing in graphics accelerators and processors and developer of system logic. Over the years, the share of NVIDIA in the market of discrete graphics cards has grown from 70.5% to 72.5%. AMD’s share decreased from 29.5% to 27.5%. NVIDIA’s shares are growing rapidly, and the “mania of mining,” which will bring big profits to video card manufacturers, plays an important role in this. Today NVIDIA shares may seem expensive, but investors should understand that the chip manufacturer has enough trump cards in its sleeve. This year, analysts forecast an increase in NVIDIA revenues and profits by 19% and 20%, respectively. The company has a lot of development opportunities. Although its shares may temporarily slow down or fall in price, they have enough potential for long-term growth. Finally, American Express Company (Amex) is an American financial corporation that provides mainly consumer finance services for the issue and maintenance of payment and credit cards. American Express works with both individuals and legal entities. In the world, the number of branded cards issued by the company is 88 million pieces, and their turnover for nine months of 2016 exceeded $ 750 billion. We expect that the company’s ROE will exceed 25%, while the result of 2017, according to our estimates, should be lower than the result of the 2016 year due to one-time incomes received in the past year.

2.3 The passive selected portfolio (P3)

For this portfolio, the selected companies include AT&T, Medley Capital Corporation, Pennant Park Investment Corporation, and Hercules Capital. The first company in P3 is AT&T. This is a telecommunication company whose headquarter is in Dallas, Texas, in America. The company is the largest global telecommunication company that provides both local and regional telephone services. The company is also the largest supplier of direct satellite broadcasting in the U.S. through DirecTV. It takes 18th place in the list of the largest cellular operators in the world with 135 million subscribers. It has the highest dividend yield among Dow Jones components – about 5.2%. The company successfully develops, generates solid cash flows, and carries out buyback programs. In the first quarter of 2014, earnings per share increased by 11%. Free cash flow for shareholders was $ 3 billion. Dividends for the first quarter were $ 0.46 per share; they steadily increased during the last decade. Medley Capital Corporation is an investment company whose objective is to generate income while investing in capital products either directly through lending or buying securities from private companies in North America. The corporation has helped develop small and medium companies to expand their operation through financing or acquisition. The majority of its investment assures warrants and other beneficial equity participation characteristics, which the company uses as a strategy to achieve its positive investment returns. The company’s total value of the investment has been growing with the end of F.Y. 2017 amounts to $835.9 million. This is associated with over 68 portfolio investments in different companies with senior secured loans account 67% as first-lien, senior secured lien amounts to 12.7%, while warrants or equities constituted 20.3%. The next company is PennantPark Investment Corporation. From inception in 2007 to the end of 2017, PennantPark deployed approximately $7 billion into over 500 companies with more than 180 sponsors. The company operates with different subsidiaries with PennantPark Investment Corporation and PennantPark Floating Rate Capital, Ltd., Forming the company’s publicly traded businesses. As of the end of the financial year 2016, the company had invested over $229.3 million in different portfolios with a yield of 11.2% of the investment. Finally, Hercules Capital is among the P3 companies selected. The company has been growing with different motives as driven by the vision of serving the needs of entrepreneurs and public investors, as highlighted by the CEO and the founder chairman of the company in the year 2003. The company strives for alternative investment opportunities that stimulate a good venture in the world market. To achieve the strategy, built of Hercules Capital, which was publicly traded were essential and consequently led to listing in NYSE as a Business Development Company(BDC) as an enterprise having an excess value of $1.6 million, with a market cap of $1.0 million. The company is globally recognized as the largest non-bank source of financing for entrepreneurs to accomplish their goals and expand their capital base.

3.0 Portfolio Analysis

This section provides an in-depth analysis of the portfolio for purposes of evaluating the portfolio Risk, Return, variance, and standard deviation while making a comparison with other portfolios, that is, P1, P2, and P3. Under each type of portfolio, the selected stocks are analyzed using different approaches. It is noted that the selected stock in each portfolio varies from others since they were picked from different sectors in the stock market. The data used for analysis utilizes the financial year 2020 historical data obtained from the website. The following is my actively selected portfolio(P1):
Name of Company Company’s Appreciation Closing  prices (2020), $ Number of shares Position $ Proportion of Share in portfolio
Best Buy BBY 115 259 19471 1.8%
Microsoft MSFT 232 7560 610260 56.8%
Boeing BA 214 565 188427 17.5%
Walmart WMT 148 2830 256260 23.9%
Total 1074418 100.0%
Calculating portfolio parameters  To effectively compute the portfolio parameters, return and risk of the portfolio, the study utilizes the weekly prices uploaded from historical data of each stock and S&P index for the financial year 2020. The changes in parameters and the entire portfolio, thus calculated for the report analysis.
Prices ($) Changes (%)
10/12/2020 119.35 219.66 167.35 144.71 3462.25
10/19/2020 118.21 216.23 167.36 143.85 3451.75 -0.96% -1.56% 0.01% -0.59% -0.30%
10/26/2020 111.55 202.47 144.39 138.75 3264.75 -5.63% -6.36% -13.72% -3.55% -5.42%
11/2/2020 123.06 223.72 157.74 145.77 3500.75 10.32% 10.50% 9.25% 5.06% 7.23%
11/9/2020 114.30 216.51 187.11 150.54 3582 -7.12% -3.22% 18.62% 3.27% 2.32%
11/16/2020 119.14 210.39 199.62 150.24 3554.25 4.23% -2.83% 6.69% -0.20% -0.77%
11/23/2020 112.63 215.23 216.50 151.60 3636.5 -5.46% 2.30% 8.46% 0.91% 2.31%
11/30/2020 108.86 216.21 213.01 152.64 3660.5 -3.35% 0.46% -1.61% 0.69% 0.66%
The expected returns are measured from weekly returns. The risk element of stock or portfolio is measured in terms of standard deviation from the portfolio theory. Therefore utilizing the above stock parameters and the S&P index parameters, we can compute the expected returns and the standard deviation.
Company Share in portfolio Expected Returns(Ri) Variance Standard Deviation  (s)
Best Buy 1.8% -1.31% 0.39% 6.24%
Microsoft 56.8% -0.23% 0.28% 5.31%
Boeing 17.5% 3.45% 1.02% 10.12%
Walmart 23.9% 0.76% 0.08% 2.75%
S&P 0.80% 0.14% 3.81%
Calculating the Risk and Return for Portfolio The purpose of creating a portfolio by investors is to achieve optimal investment by diversification of non-systematic risks. The comparison of average risk and return is essential in analyzing a well-performing stock and shares’ sensitivity to market parameters. To determine our stock’s performance with respect to the S&P index, we compute the correlations between the stocks.
BBY 1.000 0.514 -0.424 -0.237
MSFT 0.514 1.000 0.124 0.359
BA -0.424 0.124 1.000 0.934
WMT -0.237 0.359 0.934 1.000
The portfolio risk is given by the formula; RP= SWi *Ri Where Wi  is the weight of stock i, Ri  is the  returns stock i Table 1
Company Share in portfolio Expected Returns(Ri) Wi*Ri
Best Buy 1.8% -1.31% -0.024%
Microsoft 56.8% -0.23% -0.128%
Boeing 17.5% 3.45% 0.604%
Walmart 23.9% 0.76% 0.182%
RP 0.634%
The return our portfolio(Rp) is 0.634%. This imply that, our portfolio is not good since it is less than  the S&P index (1.83%). To evaluate if our portfolio is optimal is calculate the portfolio risk. The portfolio risk as measured by the standard deviation is computed as follows. Step 1: Determine the weights of the stock Step 2: Determine the Expected returns The first two steps presented in above table 1. Step 3: Establish Variance Covariance Matrix
BBY 0.00334 0.001908 0.000926 0.000643
MSFT 0.001908 0.002418 0.001914 0.000965
BA 0.000926 0.001914 0.008785 0.001978
WMT 0.000643 0.000965 0.001978 0.000648
Step 4: Compute the standard deviation The portfolio variance from the above computation is given by 0.001947. The standard deviation is the square root of portfolio variance, that is, 0.044128. Therefore, comparing to S&P index of 1.83%, our portfolio is better off and thus less risky than the S&P index.

3.1 Sharpe ratio (SR)

This is a measure of excess return over a unit of risk.
Company Expected Returns(Ri) Risk(s) Risk-free Rate(Rf) Sharpe Ratio(SR)
Best Buy -1.31% 6.24% 0.1% -22.7%
Microsoft -0.23% 5.31% 0.1% -6.1%
Boeing 3.45% 10.12% 0.1% 33.1%
Walmart 0.76% 2.75% 0.1% 24.1%
Portfolio 0.63% 0.04% 0.1% 1213.6%
S&P index -1.10% 4.80% 0.1% -25.0%
Using this analysis, investors should choose stock with a higher SR since it assures a higher excess return for every unit of risk undertaken. Therefore, in our portfolio, Boeing is the optimal choice.

3.2 Markowitz Portfolio

Markowitz’s portfolio theory provides a trade-off mechanism for risk tolerance and reward expectations for a given portfolio taking into account the goal of maximizing the returns at a minimum level of risk while diversifying the other securities. The theory assumes that investors are risk-averse and prefer less risky portfolio for any given returns(Mangram, 2013). Using this theory, the analysis utilizes efficient frontiers of a portfolio where the only portfolio under feasible points is considered optimal. To effectively make this analysis, the report takes a randomly selected portfolio and tries to establish the maximum return of the portfolio. First, I compute the individual stock’s expected returns as shown below. Computing the Individual stock risk and return

Step 1: Determine the expected returns

Prices ($) Changes (%)
10/12/2020 25 39.28 552.46 104.91
10/19/2020 31.3 40.94 543.61 100.98 25.20% 4.23% -1.60% -3.75%
10/26/2020 29.45 37.85 501.36 91.24 -5.91% -7.55% -7.77% -9.65%
11/2/2020 31.97 40.48 582.48 96.69 8.56% 6.95% 16.18% 5.97%
11/9/2020 34.35 44.74 531.88 114.99 7.44% 10.52% -8.69% 18.93%
11/16/2020 34.6 45.87 523.51 112.58 0.73% 2.53% -1.57% -2.10%
11/23/2020 34.46 47.45 530.45 120.59 -0.40% 3.44% 1.33% 7.11%
11/30/2020 34.41 46.91 535.6 119.93 -0.15% -1.14% 0.97% -0.55%
Company Expected Return (Ri) Weight(w)
CIT 4.56% 0.8792
MET 2.54% 0.0000
NVDA -0.44% 0.0000
AXP 1.91% 0.1208
Total 100%

Step 2: Computing the Covariance matrix

CIT 0.002364 0.002565 0.001795 0.003375
MET 0.002565 0.003249 0.001268 0.004527
NVDA 0.001795 0.001268 0.006296 0.000461
AXP 0.003375 0.004527 0.000461 0.007329

Step 3: computing the portfolio risk and standard deviation

Portfolio return is 0.0424346, it is noted that the initial portfolio return equivalent to zero since the weights of stocks are zero. The calculated portfolio risk is equal to 0.002486 implying a minimum risk, and good investment opportunity. To conclude the comparison, using the same criteria, I analyzed the passive portfolio. The passive portfolio comprise the stock of T, MCC, PNNT, and HTGC.
Prices ($) Changes (%)
10/12/2020 27.33 23.11 3.16 11.63
10/19/2020 27.82 24.35 3.08 11.53 1.79% 5.37% -2.53% -0.86%
10/26/2020 27.02 24 2.91 11.2 -2.88% -1.44% -5.52% -2.86%
11/2/2020 27.44 23.35 3.02 11.4 1.55% -2.71% 3.78% 1.79%
11/9/2020 28.91 23.46 3.29 12.43 5.36% 0.47% 8.94% 9.04%
11/16/2020 28.32 24.44 4.26 12.89 -2.04% 4.18% 29.48% 3.70%
11/23/2020 29.03 24.19 4.6 13.61 2.51% -1.02% 7.98% 5.59%
11/30/2020 28.87 24.69 4.48 13.54 -0.55% 2.07% -2.61% -0.51%
Covariance Matrix
T 0.000681 -0.000079 0.000033 0.000702
MCV -0.000079 0.000756 0.000687 -0.000103
PNNT 0.000033 0.000687 0.009792 0.002293
HTGC 0.000702 -0.000103 0.002293 0.001387
Portfolio Risk and Standard deviation The portfolio return equals 0.009509, while the portfolio risk is equal to 0.000684. This depicts a lower risk for the portfolio.

3.3 Beta factor

The beta factor is an essential measure of the sensitivity of securities concerning the market. The factor is useful in the CAPM model as it describes the relationship between expected return and the overall systematic risk. This model is critical in the valuation of risky securities and making optimal decisions by risk averse investors (Bradfield, 2003). In essence, the beta depicts the swings in the market and the appropriate response for investment in such a security. The beta values of my portfolio are the calculated below.
Share in portfolio Beta
Best Buy 1,80% 0,14
Microsoft 56,80% 1,32
Boeing 17,50% 1,63
Walmart 23,90% 0,48
Beta portfolio 1,15
Share in portfolio Beta
CIT Group 2,44% -1,02
MetLife 16,36% 1,02
 NVIDIA 52,32% 1,53
American Express Company 28,87% 0,97
Beta portfolio 1,22
Share in portfolio Beta
AT&T 99,27% 0,42
Medley Capital Corporation 0,12% 0,35
PennantPark Investment Corporation 0,19% 1,43
Hercules Capital 0,42% 0,44
Beta portfolio 0,42
Beta values have different implications as they depict the stock’s volatility with respect to the whole market. If the value is 1, the portfolio sensitivity moves like that of the market, while a higher beta ( more than 1) implies greater volatility and high risk and vise versa for a lower beta. Besides, a higher beta implying high volatility of the stock and thus riskier has a great potential for high returns. On the contrary, the beta with a lower value is less risky but has low returns. 4.0 Conclusion The portfolio is a collection of securities with the aim of diversifying the systematic risk as proposed by the portfolio theory. The portfolio analysis is essential in evaluating the investment decision for different investors depending on their perceived risk attitude. The portfolio analysis is part of and parcel of managerial functions in maximizing shareholders’ wealth goals and thus demands well-informed choices. Therefore, strategic decisions in portfolio evaluation need focus and necessitates development and mapping for strategic portfolio change. The portfolio of projects consisted of projects and other related work in strategic implementation. These projects contribute to the organization of their mission and vision. Projects the projects’ portfolio was a priority based on their strategic importance, financial benefits, types of projects, the complexity of the project, the level of risk, and resource requirements. The Necessary project decision is essential and should be accepted, based on a separate adoption in accordance with the policy approval group before its implementation. These results can be used in further studies and improve the effectiveness of the portfolio. Therefore, a portfolio was created which will bring a real profit. Estimating the effectiveness of a particular portfolio includes a periodic determination of execution and implementation of the portfolio, taking into account cash flows received and the accompanying risk as evaluated with respect to the investor’s risk attitude.


Bradfield, D. (2003). Investment Basics XLVI. On estimating the beta coefficient. Investment Analysts Journal, 32(57), 47-53. Mangram, M. E. (2013). A simplified perspective of the Markowitz portfolio theory. Global Journal of Business Research7(1), 59-70. Author I need help with investment management assignment? worry no more. Alen Owen is an investment management assignment writer with advanced skills in portfolio construction and analysis and performance measurement. This portfolio management assignment solution was done by Alen Owen with assistance of financial analysis essay writers. Why struggle

Latest 40 Nursing EBP Project Ideas

Latest 40 Nursing EBP Project Ideas

Evidence-based practice in nursing has become vital to improving the quality of care provided to patients. Incorporating evidence-based practice into nursing significantly improves patient outcomes and patient, family, and healthcare provider satisfaction. On the other hand, it can reduce costs and the risk of maltreatment by cutting down on avoidable tests and procedures.


What is Evidence-based Practice in Nursing?

Evidence-based Practice (EBP) is an approach to healthcare that utilizes up-to-date research available to improve patient health and safety to reduce overall cost and variability in health outcomes. EBP can also be described as a problem-solving approach to the delivery of health care with the integration of the best evidence from well-designed studies and patient care data while combining it with patient preferences, values, and nurse expertise.


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Process of Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing

Evidence-based practice has seven steps, which are numbered from zero to six. So, here is a brief overview of each step in the EBP process.

Step Zero: Cultivate a Spirit of Inquiry

To cultivate the spirit of inquiry, you must ask curious questions. For instance: in patients with head trauma, how does supine positioning compared with elevating the head of the bed 30 degrees affect intracranial pressure? By asking this kind of question, you lay the foundation for EBP. Without this spirit of inquiry, the successful steps in the EBP process won’t follow.

Step 1: Ask Clinical Questions in PICOT Format

Inquiries in the PICOT format take into account the patient population of interest (P), intervention (I), comparison intervention or group (C), outcome (O), and time (T). The PICOT format offers an efficient framework for searching electronic databases designed to retrieve articles only relevant to the clinical question. Taking the rapid response teams as an example, you can frame a question about whether the use of such teams will result in positive outcomes as follows: “In acute care hospitals (P), how does having a rapid response team (I) compared with not having a response team (C) affect the number of cardiac arrests (O) during four months (T).

Step 2: Search for the Best Evidence

The PICOT format offers the best way to search for evidence to inform clinical practice. For instance, if a nurse, in the rapid response case we used above, types “what is the impact of having a rapid response team?” into the search field of a database, she or he will have several abstracts, most of them irrelevant.

If the PICOT format is used, it will help identify the keywords or phrases that, if typed and combined well in the search engine, will find all the relevant articles for the question. In the PICOT question on rapid response teams, the key phrase to fill into the database search field would be acute care hospitals. This is a common subject that will yield thousands of citations and abstracts.

The second phrase to search would be rapid response team, then cardiac arrests, and the other remaining terms in the PICOT question. Lastly, combine the results of the searches for each of the terms to narrow the results to articles pertinent to the clinical question. Also, it helps to set limits on the final search.

Step 3: Critically Appraise the Evidence

Now that you have a selection of articles for review, you must appraise them to determine which ones are the most relevant, valid, reliable, and applicable to your clinical question. In this process, use the following three critical questions:

  • Are the results of the study valid? The question of validity is founded on whether the research methods are thorough enough to render findings as close to the truth as possible. Did the scholars randomly assign subjects to treatment or control groups and ensured shared key characteristics before treatment? Were valid and reliable tools used to measure key outcomes?
  • What are the results and are they important? For purposes of intervention, the question of study reliability addresses if the intervention worked, its impact on results, and the possibility of getting similar outcomes in the nurses’ practice settings. In qualitative studies, however, the question of reliability includes determining whether the research approach fits the purpose of the study, as well as other aspects of the research such as whether the results can be confirmed.
  • Will the results help me care for my patients?The question of study applicability covers clinical considerations such as whether subjects in the research are the same as one’s own patients, whether the benefits outweigh the risks, feasibility and cost-effectiveness, and patient values and preferences.

Step 4: Integrate the Evidence with Clinical Expertise and Patient Preferences and Values

Certainly, research evidence by itself is not enough to justify a change in practice. Clinical expertise, based on patient assessments, laboratory data, data from results management programs, and patient’s preferences and values are critical elements of evidence-based practice. Since there is no clear-cut formula for how to weigh each of these elements, the implementation of EBP is highly influenced by institutional and clinical variables.

For instance, there is evidence indicating reduced incidences of depression in burn patients if they get eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy before hospital discharge. You what your patients to receive the therapy up to the eighth session and so do they. However, the budget constraints your hospital experiences hinder it from hiring therapists to provide this treatment. So the resource shortage deters enactment of the evidence-based practice.

Step 5: Evaluate the Outcomes of the Practice Decision or Changes Based on the Evidence

Once an EBP is implemented, it is vital to monitor and evaluate any changes in outcomes to ensure positive effects are supported and negative ones remedied. Remember that because an intervention was successful in a thoroughly controlled trial does not imply it will equally be effective in the clinical setting.

Monitoring the effect of an EBP change on the health care quality and outcomes will help nurses spot flaws in application and identify the most precise way most patients can benefit. If the outcomes diverge from those reported in the research literature, monitoring will help find out why.

Step 6: Disseminate EBP Outcomes

nursing ebp project ideasNurses can attain excellent outcomes for their patients through evidence-based practice, however, they often don’t share their experiences with fellow nurses in their own or other healthcare facilities. This leads to pointless replication of efforts and propagates clinical approaches that aren’t evidence-based.

One of the best ways to disseminate successful initiatives of EBP is by doing EBP rounds in your institution, presenting at local, regional, and national conferences, and reporting in peer-reviewed journals, publications, and professional newsletters.

Undoubtedly, the application of EBP in nursing has significantly increased in different hospitals and healthcare centers worldwide. Evidence-based practice project ideas offer a great way to gain valuable knowledge and practice while providing patient care. Furthermore, EBP offers an opportunity to help nurses by contributing to global healthcare.

Some of the most pressing evidence-based practice project ideasconcern medical surgery, geriatrics, midwifery, and management and leadership in nursing. Need some inspiring topics for your upcoming nursing EBP project? Look no further! Here are 40 nursing EBP project ideas you can consider in your nursing evidence based practice paper.


Latest 40 Nursing EBP Project Ideas You Can Use in your DNP Project

  1. Senior nurses and attitude towards the application of evidence-based practice care solutions – a primary investigation
  2. Evidence-based nursing practices for the disabled in inpatient settings in the US – literature review
  3. Selection of treatment procedure through evidence-based practice – an analysis of nursing care
  4. Evidence-based support for Continuing Professional Development requirements in nursing education – analysis of literature
  5. Mental health nursing – perspectives from evidence-based practice in the US
  6. Is care quality improved through evidence-based nursing? An investigation
  7. A systematic investigation of the relationship link between nursing education and professional excellence in the US
  8. Nursing staff screening and recruitment – an evidence-based approach
  9. Why is evidence-based nursing and care highly recommended? An explorative analysis
  10. A critical appraisal of the challenges in the implementation of evidence-based practice in nursing in the US
  11. An analysis of the practical implications of the theoretical foundations for evidence-based nursing practice in the US
  12. Safety precautions for patients with dementia in inpatient settings in the US based on evidence-based practice – review of literature
  13. Catering to patient preferences through the evidence-based nursing approach – an analysis from the US
  14. How do practitioners evaluate evidence-based nursing practices? An investigation
  15. Tracing the historical context of evidence-based practice in nursing in the context of current achievements
  16. What do nursing students think about evidence-based practice in nursing? A qualitative study
  17. Palliative care in inpatient settings – a review of evidence-based practice perspectives in the US
  18. Addressing the implementation gap between knowledge and practice in evidence-based nursing in the US
  19. What is the impact of nursing leadership styles on the synthesis of evidence-based practice in Cardiac ICUs in the US? A primary exploration
  20. The use of social media applications for the provision of evidence-based nursing care in the US – an investigation
  21. What is the role of evidence-based practice in promoting collaborative decision-making in ICUs in the US?
  22. A systematic review of the specialized evidence-based nursing practice models in the US and the UK
  23. Evidence-based nursing evaluation and practice as an integral part of nursing education – a review
  24. How do nurses translate evidence base into actual practice? A qualitative exploration of the quantity and quality of theoretical evidence translated into practice in the US
  25. How relevant are PICOT guidelines in evidence-based nursing evaluations and practice care solutions? Review of literature
  26. How do nurses define safety in practice – an evidence-based care approach
  27. The evidence base for sexual abuse in developed and developing countries – a literature review
  28. Evidence-based nursing in real-world contexts – an analysis
  29. Is the evidence-based practice of a health concern universal or does it differ according to co-related determinants? An Investigation through peer-reviewed literature
  30. What do nursing students think about evidence-based practice in nursing? A qualitative study
  31. The collective knowledge of a nursing department based on evidence-based practice – how often does this happen?
  32. Antibacterial foam dispenses effectiveness compared to simple washing of hands with water and soap in nursing units
  33. Does the historical evidence point to the efficacy of analyzing evidence-based practice for nursing studies? A review
  34. What is the best way to write a systematic review to maximize the efficacy of evidence-based practice? Insights from literature
  35. Is evidence-based nursing effective in sharpening nurses’ critical thinking skills? Qualitative guidelines
  36. Effects on oral contraceptives, especially on weight gain
  37. NCLEX: When should you perfectly take it
  38. How do nurses use evidence-based practice for self-care?
  39. Professional wisdom or educated guidelines? An analysis of the impact of evidence-based practice on nurse care delivery in the US
  40. Theories learned in nursing school: Are they applied in practice


Without a doubt, there are several great nursing EBP project ideas to choose from. So, figure out what works best for you and create a winning EBP project on your own. You can present the outcomes to your fellow nurses or publish your results in a nursing journal article for the rest of the nurses worldwide to read and practice.

Besides, if you are looking to get help with Nursing EBP project writing, don’t hesitate to place an order with us

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How to Write Case Study Assignment

How to Write Case Study Assignment

A case study is an academic assignment that asks specific questions about issues, problems, or situations to help a professional or student identify and analyze the issues or problems in the given situation. It also offers suitable responses, preventative measures, or solutions to the problem or issues. A case study also requires the student to incorporate theoretical knowledge to solve the problem or issue arising from the situation.

Writing a case study assignment requires intensive investigation of the issue or problem, examination of all available alternative solutions, and giving recommendations for the most effective solutions to the problem based on evidence. If you want to write a successful case study, then be sure to have all the relevant materials and sources for the assignment.

Types of Case Studies

You may encounter different case study assignments as a university or college student. However, these different case studies depend on the subject or field you are pursuing. These are the most popular case studies you may encounter:

  • Descriptive Case Studies: These case studies describe a case to help others understand the problem or issues examined. These case studies are mainly used as a research method.
  • Cumulative Case Studies: These case studies require students to collect data and information from different sources at different times. They are common in qualitative research and are a method of data analysis to prevent avoidable new investigations.
  • Exploratory Case Studies: These are often used as outlines for more extensive research studies. These case studies will inform you why you might need large-scale research or not. These case studies are usually used in the social sciences and concentrate mainly on real-life cases.
  • Intrinsic Case Studies: Intrinsic case studies aim to provide in-depth research on case questions. It also allows for case study analysis by addressing what is available. The main focus in this type of case study is focusing on the subject and limiting the exploration of that particular case.
  • Instrumental Case Studies: These study cases are designed to address the components of the study through the use of student materials as the tool or instrument that leads to scientific evidence. Still, you will have to explain your outcomes.

Now that you understand the different types of case study writing, it will be easier to understand the step-by-step writing process.

A Steps-by-Step Case Study Writing Process

A case study assignment can prove challenging, especially when you need help figuring out where to start. However, below are steps to follow to get started!

Read the Case Study Questions and Understand

Before you start writing your case study, read the case study and the associated questions carefully. Identify the main issues, problems, or points of the case study. Analyze the questions to find out what they require you to do. Revisit the case study topic and link the relevant information to each question asked.

Determine the Issues or Problems in the Case Study

Case studies describe a scenario that may arise in a specific social context or field of study, thus involving many people in complex situations. Therefore, case studies will describe a problematic scenario, possibly in how it is handled or its intricacy. However, it is essential to analyze the scenario and determine the problem or actions described in the case that may be problematic.

Connect Theory to Practice

Utilize your knowledge of the current codes or practices, theories, or other scholarly documents and behaviors to determine what was done correctly and what was not. For instance, determine whether appropriate interviewing techniques were used or if people were interviewed in your case study.

Plan your Answer

Consider using the questions you set as your guidelines to answer each section of your case study. That way, you reduce the chance of forgetting the set question. You can then remove the heading before you submit your document for grading.

Begin Writing Your Case Study

Up to this point, you have everything you need for your case study. So, it is time to put it down on paper. Ascertain that your case study writing process is founded on the data and information gathered during preparation.


Make the introduction as clear to your reader as possible what topic you intend to discuss and how you intend to discuss it. If you have carefully read the questions, understood them, and researched and planned your answers, you will have a clear idea of what you will write.

Allow your introduction to transition from general to specific information. Most importantly, let the last sentence of your introduction be a thesis statement, and it should bring out what readers expect in a clear and precise manner.

Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs are where you discuss the case study. Depending on the number of questions you have set and how much discussion is involved in answering each question, decide on the number of paragraphs required.

Ideally, use four paragraphs to exhaustively discuss a complex question and one paragraph for a fundamental question. However, you need to have one main point for each paragraph. Consider including headings to clarify your answers while avoiding repetition or rambling. Bear in mind your total word count for your case study while you write. You can divide your body section as follows:

Background Information

When writing a case study assignment, you must include background information and an excellent panoramic view of the issue or problem you intend to cover.

Presentation of Data

In case study writing, actual data must be presented. Including actual data will add credibility to the case you are trying to solve. Data can be derived from the questionnaires and interviews you conduct. Therefore, let the reader know what you learned from the questionnaires and interviews about the issue, its development, existing solutions, and expected outcome.

Possible Solutions

Be sure to provide the possible solutions for the case; you must provide the case itself along with the case solutions. For instance, you can refer to some of the statements by the respondents from your interview. The idea here is to give the reader a complete understanding of the issue or problem. Also, make recommendations on the possible solutions for the problem or issue under discussion.


Essentially, your case study conclusion should summarize all of the main points covered in the body paragraphs without introducing new ideas that need to be covered in the body. More importantly, make your conclusion as conclusive as possible.


Since a case study assignment is academic, adding references is very important. This is because references add credibility. So, use reliable referencing to make your case study credible, especially if you’re borrowing ideas from other authors.

Edit and Proofread Your Case Study

When you are done writing your case study, you need to edit and proofread your document. Correct any spelling inconsistencies, grammar mistakes, punctuation errors, and sentence structure, and ensure there is a smooth flow from one sentence to another. Most importantly, it ensures coherence and the transition of ideas from one paragraph to another.


If you are satisfied that your case study assignment document demonstrates that, if you were a professional handling that specific issue or problem, you would know the kind of procedures and policies to be followed or the actions to be taken to handle the problem professionally, then you can submit it for grading.

What to do to Improve your Case Study Assignment

Use relevant, trustworthy data or references.

A good case study must have trustworthy and reliable data and information. Case study assignments should always appeal to real situations. Therefore, use objective evidence and data to strengthen your assignment. If you can obtain actual data, consider using data that is as close to the real thing as possible.

Use a Clear and Easy Writing Style

Consider using a simple, easy, and involving writing style to catch your readers’ attention. Remember that formatting plays a more significant role in your case study assignment than you can imagine. Reading a long text with no heading, bolded text, graphs, bullet points, etc. can be monotonous. Therefore, make your case study assignment more readable and attractive by using these formatting methods wherever suitable.

Conduct the Research

When writing a case study assignment, always start by researching extensively and collecting as much information and data as possible about the case. That way, you will have a better understanding of the case. Also, gather reliable and trustworthy sources, ideally from journal articles, interviews, videos, and presentations.

Once you have all the information and data, analyze it and determine the essential facts for your case study topic. Develop an outline so that you have a straightforward plan to follow during writing.

Final Thoughts

At this point, you now know how to write a case study. However, if you experience any challenges in completing your case study assignment, you can avail of our case study assignment writing help. We are a top-rated case study assignment writing company with the trust and credibility to help students write exceptional case study assignments!

Ultimate Guide To Nursing Theories

Ultimate Guide To Nursing Theories

nursing theoriesOver time, tons of theories have been and are being developed. And the medical field has not been left behind. Understanding theories is a major part of the advancement of the discipline. Taking it down the foundation of theories, a theory is a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.

Behind every theory, there has to be a theorist and in most cases, when stating the theory, their names are attached, say, Einstein’s theory of relativity, which is one of the most common theories out there. Nursing theories are no different and have theorists who present a set of ideas intended to explain facts or events that help guide and define nursing care and provide a proper foundation for clinical decision-making.

Metaparadigm of Nursing: Explaining Major Concepts of Nursing Theories

The concept of nursing is an all-around concept that works systematically. To make sense of nursing theories you need to first understand the pillars or rather the main concepts tied to nursing.


This very basic component focuses on the ‘patient’ or rather the receiver of the care and this explores all other people in their life. To better understand the ‘person’, a basic understanding of their social, spiritual and healthcare needs is needed. It is argued that a person is better endowed to manage their health when they have proper personal connections.


The health bit to this focuses on the patients well being, In this case, their well-being is not only tied to their physical and anatomy but also their spiritual, emotional, intellectual and social well-being. All these play an important role in the health of the person.


It has been said, we are as good as what we know which is very much influenced by what surrounds us. This component seeks to express the relationship between a person’s health and how their surrounding can influence their health. The question here is, how can a person’s environment influence their health?


Well, this would all be incomplete without their caregiver, who is the nurse. This concept sees to express the relationship between the patient and the caregiver. The role of the nurse in ensuring the patient achieves the best possible health outcome. It is arguably the key component to all this.

Over years of research, numerous theories have been established and while some are still debatable most of them have been adopted and inculcated in learning. However, despite these theories being different, they all share the metaparadigm of nursing.

Levels of Nursing Theories.

Generally, nursing theories are categorized into three levels

  • Grand nursing theories

These theories are considered to be the most complex as well as the broadest category. It is however applicable in a variety of situations and hence widely accepted.

  • Middle-range nursing theories

Middle-range nursing theories are quite moderate and are a little bit more specific when compared to grand nursing theories. These theories are less complex and thanks to their nature are testable and hence verifiable.

  • Practice level nursing theories

These are the least complex group of theories and have a very narrow scope of focus. Their nature allows them to be used only in specific cases and on specific types of patients. On the upside, since they are derived from the other two levels, they are easily complimented.

Here are a couple of nursing theories that you will encounter in the course of your academic pursuit in nursing. They are quite vast and there is so much more information on each of them individually, however, I will just highlight the basics to them.

Nursing Theories and Theorists

Environmental theory (Florence Nightingale)

nursing theorists
Vintage engraving of Florence Nightingale, 1820 to 13 August 1910, a celebrated English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while serving as a manager of nurses trained by her during the Crimean War, where she organised the tending to wounded soldiers

This is one of the most common nursing theories you will find. Florence Nightingale served as a nurse in the Crimean war and during her time there she made several observations and discovered that due to unsanitary conditions, most soldiers ended up dying from lack of; fresh air, pure water, effective drainage, sunlight and cleanliness rather than they did from wounds.

This formed the basis of her theory and was a game changer which ended up saving many lives back in the day. This theory tends to prioritize the environmental factors, to get the patient back to proper health conditions.

Despite this theory having been fronted in the 19th century its relevance in modern-day society still stands.

Virginia Henderson’s nursing need theory

“The nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength, the will, and the knowledge. But I go on to say that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible.” ~Virginia Henderson

This theory is quite modern and it seeks to promote the importance of increasing the patient’s independence to speed up recovery. Henderson’s theory is both vast and effective and she emphasized the psychological, spiritual, social and physiological components of care.

Patricia Benner’s novice to expert theory

With years of practice comes experience and this is variable since the level of exposure also varies. However, Patricia Benner developed a theory which was pretty much straight forward and it ranked the different levels of nursing into five categories i.e

  1. Novice
  2. Advanced Beginner
  3. Competent
  4. Proficient
  5. Expert: This theory not only takes into consideration the level of experience but also the level of education.
  1. Maternal role of attainment theory (Ramona Mercer): Ramona was a nurse who specialized in maternity and newborn care. Through her various interactions and experience, she realized the importance of bonding and parent-child attachment in a child’s life. She, therefore, created a theory that promotes maternal identity and bonding, however, this theory is not ideal for adoptions.

Ramona gave these four phases in her theory

  • Anticipatory phase- This starts during pregnancy as the mother-to-be makes certain changes in readiness for the baby
  • Formal phase- This involves, learning how to take proper care of the baby in various situations.
  • Informal phase- This is all about adaptation to the motherhood lifestyle and priorities
  • Personal phase- Individually, the maternal role has to be understood and accepted.

King’s theory of goal attainment

Taking this back to patient care plans, we cannot emphasize the importance of having a plan toward an attainable goal. This is exactly what this theory is about. It emphasizes on the importance of a goal-oriented recovery, that sees the nurse and patient setting goals that they both work towards.

This approach has proven to be quite effective as it incorporates the effort of the patient as well and this sets their focus on recovery.

Nursing process theory

Unitary human beings theory

Martha rogers is the name behind this theory and she depicted it as being a combination of nursing as an art and a science. This theory was based on couple of assumptions revolving around a ‘person’

Self-care deficit theory ( Dorothea Orem)

This theory seeks to provide a guideline on how nurses can help their patients can practice self-care and hereby maintain their wellbeing.

  1. Systems theory
  2. Adaptation theory
  3. Comfort theory
  4. Human becoming theory
  5. Human-to-human relationship model
  6. Interpersonal theory
  7. Transcultural nursing

Importance of Nursing Theories

While this may come as a very obvious question, it is a question worth asking when dealing with nursing theories.

Gives basis for future research

When basing research, scholars will need to study already published work so as to avoid replication as well as know what they agree with and what to dispute. Some of these theories have stood the test of time and are still relevant.

As you know, DNP projects aim at translating nursing research into practice. Nursing theories play a critical role in shaping the parameters of nursing care delivery. Therefore, our DNP capstone project writers utilize nursing theories to translate evidence into nursing practice to align with expected outcome.

Provides a foundation for nursing practice

Theories generally provide a proper basis for learning purposes. Every discipline is based on certain ideologies that have been tested and nursing medicine is no different.

It helps nurses understand their role in healthcare

The role of nurses in healthcare is both vital and complex. They have been entrusted with a very important task that ultimately helps preserve human life and this responsibility needs clarity for the proper execution of tasks.

Allows the nursing profession to maintain relevance

Nursing theories act as a guide and every so often they are revisited just to make sure they are dependable. With new information and theories in play, relevance is maintained since they help solve everyday problems. Their adaptability is a key strength.

Promotes education, research and practice

Right from college to the hospital, these theories remain relevant, after all, we practice what we learn. However, during practice, the hands-on experience sheds a whole different light on what you know.

Nursing theories are accepted universally and are vital to the nursing profession. As you consider having a career in nursing, remember you will learn more than just the human anatomy and procedures. The goal here is to help the patients achieve the best health they can in the most effective and efficient way. On top of that, it will be an added advantage if the patient now knows how to take better care of themselves to avoid frequent visits to the hospital.

Since nursing theories shape nursing concepts and play a critical role in patient care delivery. Nursing student will often be required to complete nursing theories assignments. We are the best nursing paper writing service to help with writing nursing assignments on any of the nursing theories

Flight 255 Aircraft Accident Case Study Essay

SOLUTION: Flight 255 Aircraft Accident Case Study Essay

Are you looking for aircraft accident investigation assignment help from expert aviation assignment help experts? Below is a solution for flight 255 air accident investigation report example. If its your first time to do an air accident investigation assignment follow the report to understand the guidelines to follow.

Overview of the Flight 255 Air Accident

It is exactly 25 years since one of the worst airborne accident happened on the soil of the United States of America. On August 16, 1987, aircraft Flight 255 bound for Arizona was involved in a crash that killed 156 people and left one person alive. Among the dead were 148 passengers, 6 crew members and 2 persons on the ground. Five people on the ground were injured, with one person seriously injured and four persons suffering minor injuries.  The survivor of the crash was a four year old girl by the name of Cecelia Cichan, now 29 years and married. The aircraft belonged to Northwest airline and was headed for Arizona from Detroit Metro Airport.

According to NTSB (1987) the aircraft that was involved in the air mishap was a McDonnel Douglas DC-9-82, US Registry N312RC. It had 149 passengers and 6 crew members on boards. The craft was being piloted by Captain John R. Maus aged 57 years and David Dodds aged 35 years. According to the history of the flight, the aircraft started journey on August 16, 1987 operating as flight 750 after been picked at Minneapolis. It was being flown to Michigan with on the journey stop at Detroit Metro Airport. It arrived at Saginaw at about 1840 daylight eastern time, and was scheduled to make flights to Santa Ana, California with two enroute stops at Detroit and the other one at Phoenix. The aircraft was scheduled to be piloted by the same crew that flew it in. Now operating as Flight 255, it left Saginaw N312RC at around 1853 Eastern Time. Flight 255 arrived at Detroit Metro Airport at 1942 Eastern Time. It is reported that the journey to Detroit Metro Airport was uneventful. At the gate of Detroit Metro Airport, the aircraft made successful 180” turn to its designated arrival gate. After passengers had disembarked the plane, routine checkup of aircraft and cabin maintenance logbook was done by one of the Northwest mechanic, nothing unusual was detected on either logbooks. Before the flight, it was reported that the captain conducted the usual walk-around inspection the plane. He ascertained to the transportation agent that everything was in order for the flight to take off.  Tentatively at around 2029 Eastern Time weight tabulation was handed to the crew, and about 2032 flight 255 started its journey by departing the gate. At around 2033 the flight crew started the engines and the ground crew detached the tow bar from the craft. Details emerged that communication between the ground controller and the flight crew was going smooth and at about 2035 the ground controller gave the flight crew of flight 255 the green light to way out the ramp using taxiway Charlie, commonly referred to as C, then taxi to runway 3C, and thereafter switch radio frequencies to 119.45Mhz, which they were to use to communicate with the ground controller. However, it is reported that the first officer despite being alerted to change radio channels he did not, he only repeated the taxi clearance statement. Recordings from the aircraft indicate that the captain sort advice from the first office on whether they could use runaway 3C for takeoff. Something that first officer confirmed and alerted the captain of flight 255. Runaway 3C, which is the shortest of the three runaways at Detroit Metro Airport is used by aircrafts recording takeoff weights of 147,500 pounds and 145,100 pounds, with flaps set at 110. Flight 255 could use the runaway since it was below the recommended takeoff weight. The aircraft was at 144,047 pounds. The aircraft is reported to have missed the turnoff at taxiway C, but it was later redirected by the ground controller to runway 3C. communication at this point is reported to have been all right as the ground controller manager to contact the first officer and directing him to runaway 3C and alerting the first officer to switch to a new frequency, which he obliged. The aircraft started experiencing problems from the moment the engine was powered as the flight crew had failed to engage the automatic throttle system; luckily, they latter managed. Witnesses accounts reveal that the takeoff of flight 255 was problematic as it was confirmed that the takeoff roll was longer than of other similar aircrafts, the rotation commenced at between 1200 and 1500 feet from exit of runaway 3C, the rotation of the aircraft was at a higher pitch angle than is usually the case with other similar aircrafts, the plane’s flaps and slats were extended and lastly the plane’s tail almost struck the runaway. Once the plane was airborne, it is reported that plane started rolling from right to left, with bank angles swaying from 150 to 900. During the rolls, the left wing hit a light pole in a car lot, continued left rolling hit a light pole of another rental car lot and lastly smacked the rooftop wall of the second rental car lot. After hitting the rooftop the plane left rolled to the ground, slip along the road till it hit a railroad guard and exploding into flames. The McDonnel Douglas DC-9-82 was destroyed completely by the ground impact and engulfing fires.

Analysis and Evaluation of Fight 255 Air Accident

Due to enhanced aviation technology, aviation safety has tremendously improved, making air travel the safest mode of transport. Nevertheless, there are still cases of aviation accidents despite automation efforts in the industry. Due to the advanced aviation technologies such as automation employed in airplanes today  we can conclude that the aircraft accident involving McDonnel Douglas DC-9-82 was caused by human error. This view is upheld by research conducted to investigate the causes of aircraft accidents. It was reported that most of aviation accidents are caused by human error (Kern, 1998; Strauch, 2004). Wiegmann and Shappell () point out that aircraft over the years have continued to be more reliable, and therefore it is human error that is contributing to aviation accidents. Aviation experts and aviation safety analysts report that human error in aviation as any human actions that compromise the effectiveness or safety of aircraft system (Wickens, Gordan & Liu, 1998). Human error may occur due to the following: humans operating the aircraft system; humans who designed and developed the aircraft system; humans who supervise the aircraft crew and humans who trained the aircraft crew. Kern (1998) observes that aviation accidents are caused by two categories of human error; namely, omission and commission. Error of omission is attributed to flight crew members failing in executing their obligatory tasks. Errors of commission, on the other hand, occur when crew members such as flight crew members execute their required tasks wrongly. Other forms of human errors that cause aviation accidents include slips, lapses, mistakes and violations (Strauch, 2004). Strauch (2004) continues to observe that in aviation, human error can manifest as pilot or flight-deck error, maintenance error or as air traffic control error.

In the accident involving McDonnel Douglas DC-9-82, it is evident that the crew members failed in execution of their obligatory tasks before takeoff and during takeoff. It is reported that the aircraft had one of the most sophisticated technology. Therefore, most probability human performance of the flight crew, air controllers or maintenance engineer compromised the efficiency and safety measures of the plane’s system. The cause of the airplane accident is poor takeoff of the aircraft that resulted to the flaps hitting the long pole of the rental car lots. It is the duty of flight crew members to ensure that flaps and slats of an airplane are well positioned for takeoff. Similarly, it was the inspection task of flight-255 crew members to ensure that the airplane’s flaps and slats were appropriately extended for takeoff.  Flight crew of the ill fated plane failed to do a thorough TAXI checklist. Among the things they were supposed to check and verify was correct positioning of flaps and slats and the configuration of the plane for takeoff. The flight crew member are believed to have been properly trained according to the required standards. This was therefore an error of omission that cannot be explained. It is normally the duty of the first officer to position and extend the flaps once the airplane has started taxiing and cleared the ramp. However, in this case the first officer was engaging initiating change of runaways, consequently diverting his attention and delaying him from extending the flaps. Even once airborne the flight crew members failed to notice that the flaps had not been extended properly. This may be attributed to human error. Besides, it is incomprehensible why automatic alarms failed to notify the flight crew members that the flaps were not properly extended. This raises issues of the reliability of the automatic alarm to alert crew members of any improper setting. It is difficult to ascertain whether the automatic alarm failed or was it manually interfered with. Probably, improper settings of the flaps of the ill fated flight 255 were caused by mechanical errors and human errors.

Cockpit discipline of the flight crew members of flight 255 come into sharp focus. The captain was not in control of the other crew members as should be the case. The captain failed to ensure that checklists were accomplished as per the set procedures and guidelines. Information collected before the flight indicated that the flight officer was the one who signed the flight release document. This was, and is, against Northwest Airlines procedures and aviation industry regulations; instead it is the captain who is obligated to sign the flight release documents. Therefore, flight officer was burdening himself with roles of the captain and his duties. This may therefore have compromised on performance of his duties. It was also reported that initially during the taxi-out, the first officer did not abide to the ground controller request of changing radio frequency, obstructing communication between dround controller at taxiway Charlie or C and flight crew. This behaviors by the flight crew members of flight 255 may have probably caused the crashing of the plane as their performance fell below the set standards of air carrier flight crew. It is evident that human error, both of error of omission and error of commission, by the flight deck caused the air mishap.

Conclusion and Recommendation

From the above analysis and evaluation of the ill fated flight 255, it can be surmised that the airplane accident was caused by human error and mechanical error.  The following human errors caused the airplane accident: error of omission, error of commission, mistakes, violations and lapses. The first officer failed to ensure that the flaps and slats of the airplane were properly extended, and instead was engaging ground controllers in changing runaways; these represents error of omission and error of commission respectively. The flight crew failed to ensure that the TAXI checklist was accomplished properly, which represents violation and mistakes. Automation has allowed airplanes systems to detect and alert flight crew members of failure of any part of the aircraft system. However in the case of flight 255, the automatic alarms failed to alert the flight crew of improper settings of flaps and slats. This shows that the automatic alarm system may have malfunctioned due to mechanical problems or lack of electrical power.

Due to the cited errors, which include mechanical and human error, which caused the fatal crash of flight 255, there is need for aviation industry players to ensure that they review their safety standards and training standards. Flight crew members should be trained on cockpit discipline and management to ensure that every crew members understands and executes his role as per the laid down industry standards. This will prevent human errors, mistakes and violations in the future. Secondly, there is need for safety and mechanical evaluation of automatic alarm systems to ensure that failure are detected and corrected. Thirdly, players in the aviation industry should convene a meeting of flight crew members to seek better and friendly way of accomplishing the checklist since the conventional method may be failing. Lastly is the strict enforcement and adherence to checklist procedures by inspectors. This will minimize cases of human error and mechanical error as witnessed in flight 255.


National Transportation Safety Board (1987). Aircraft accident report: NorthWest Airlines, Inc. McDonnell Douglas DC-9-82, N312RC Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Romulus, Michigan. Washington DC.

KERN, T. (1998). Flight discipline. New York: McGraw-Hill.

STRAUCH, B. (2004). Investigating human error: Incidents, accidents and complex systems. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Wickens, Christopher D., Gordon, Sallie E., and Liu, Yili (1998). An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc., New York, New York.

Wiegmann, D. A. & Shappell, S. A. (2000). Human error perspectives in aviation. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 11(4), 341-357

Nursing Ethical Dilemma Assignment Topics

Nursing Ethical Dilemma Assignment Topics

As a nursing student you will be required to complete numerous assignments on ethical issues in nursing. As you know, we live in a litigious society and nursing ethics is under microscope of many hospitals and health care institutions. In endeavor to provide patient with quality and holistic care, nurses face ethical dilemma in their everyday practice. Most of the times, nurses find themselves at crossroads of their ethics and outside factors. Nursing professionals are forced to make tough decisions that do not jeopardize patient wellbeing

Passing nursing ethics assignment is critical for any future nurse manager. Our nursing paper writers over the years have written hundred of assignments on ethical issues in nursing. We are the most suited team to write your research paper or assignment on nursing ethical dilemma.

Ethics is often defined as the moral compass that governs people but more to having an individual code of ethics and principles, institutions have created their own code of ethics to operate by. Some of them may seem unattainable, but it is such disciplines that keep things right. Imagine, having your life in the hands of a medical officer whose moral compass is disoriented., That would be a calamity, right? However, certain situations and instances will put you at crossroads. These situations pull their weight and each of them has consequences. This is what we call a dilemma. Some dilemmas are more complex than others and occasionally can be termed as impossible situations.

The nursing field has a couple of them of its own. Have in mind that it also has its code of ethics that it operates on but the fundamental pillars are, respect for anatomy, health maximization, beneficence, efficiency, justice and non-maleficence among many others. As a nursing student you might want to delve deeper into topics that deal with ethical dilemma in nursing and if so, your search has definitely come to an end as I will give you a comprehensive compilation of nursing ethical dilemma assignment topics.

Informed consent

The human body is quite complex and certain procedures are complicated to undertake and this upraises their level of risk. In light of this, the patient is asked to consent to the procedure that is to be undertaken. This process is initiated by first taking a diagnosis that guides on the prevailing conditions and after assessment, a treatment plan is settled on.

Well, I’m sure you are wondering, how is this a dilemma when you can not see a comparable situation that makes it hard to choose. Well, here it is. Before giving consent to certain procedures, patients and their families will be very curious about what they are consenting to and ask as many questions as possible. But to what extent should the nurse disclose this information, what is acceptable. This is the real question when it comes to informed consent. It carries with it the hope of recovery but in an unfortunate turn of events, it can be demoralizing.

Disclosing Medical Conditions.

As a nurse, you will soon learn that not everything that the patients want is right for them especially knowledge-wise. Is the patient entitled to know what they are dealing with? Of course, however, in some instances, nurses will find themselves in a position that will force them to withhold some information for the good of the client and in the case of minors withhold it all.

Emotional distress does more harm than good during treatment and this is fueled by ‘bad news. Ethical dilemmas are in a way a conflict between professional and personal principles. Having to make this kind of decision will put you in a rather uncomfortable position.

Incompetence Among Peers

What do you do, when you notice that one of your colleagues at work is not competent in what they are tasked with. Competence in the medical field is of utmost importance, but this could have a detrimental impact on their careers and lives in general. Incompetence is displayed in many forms, which include, but are not limited to, negligence.

This kind of information could have an impact on the patients as well. Imagine getting information that your caregiver was not competent. That would definitely get you into panic mode.

On the other hand, will you let this go unquestioned? How does this reflect on you as a person and your integrity? What potential risks does it pose on patients and on human life? And even more importantly how will it affect your work? Putting that on a mental weighing scale will antagonize you.

Patients Freedom vs Nurses Control

In the past, there was an age when the public had little to no information on matters concerning their healthcare and medical practices. But a new age dawned and internet doctors are now a thing with people doing self-diagnosis and treatment ( not recommended) from the comfort of their homes.

This has seen people go into hospitals with so much ‘ misinformation’ and it takes both patience and hard work to set the notion right. The issue of patient’s freedom vs nurse’s control kicks in when a patient decides to make a personal choice that is in contrast to already established medical practices. This could range anywhere from lifestyle choices to basic negligence of treatment.

As a medical practitioner, all that you can do in such instances is warn against such practices but you can impose on the patient. However, if anyone has some sense left in them they will do whatever it takes to stay alive, don’t you think? Recovery is a matter of having the medical personnel on board to offer you the best treatment there is but o the same time taking initiative towards recovery and staying healthy. After all, there is no law against living on junk, but you have the choice to healthy eating.

A patient may be unable to differentiate between what he/ she wants and what they really need. This clouded judgement could make them opt for a care plan as opposed to the cure plan you give to them. This feels frustrating, but there is only so much you can do.

Personal and Religious Beliefs

Personal beliefs are all about what you know and what you stand for while religious beliefs are created around certain religious practices, teachings and beliefs. These too pull their weight when it comes to nursing dilemmas.

Imagine having a patient and diagnosing them for a potentially life-threatening condition, however, it is still within a manageable range. However, the patient has staunch religious beliefs that will not let you do your job, what do you do? In other instances, parents have impaled the same standards and practices on their kids and this will see them skipping immunization shots and infant clinical visits. Well, the law can intervene in this, but this will be after you filled a report with them.

After all, is said and done, there is only so much that a nurse can do. However, as a nursing student, you have a choice on the kind of paper you will choose, compile and present and given the choice of an expert nursing paper writer to do it, then it is only wise to take it. Professional writers are not only experienced in the nursing field but also conversant with the formulation and compilation of all your nursing academic papers. Get the feel of authenticity, originality, and quality content.

DNAR Orders

As a nurse, you will not only be dealing with young and energetic people with only a cold or a rash but will be dealing with both young and old patients with terminal illnesses. For clients with such conditions, extra care is needed for them and when not offered, things could get messy really quick. As part of your medical training, you are taught and prepared on what to do when clients hearts stop.

Performing a cardiopulmonary resuscitation is part of the first aid measures to take when a patient stops breathing or when the heart stops. However what happens when you are given Do Not Administer Resuscitation Orders(DNAR)? Do you let the patient die while you still have a chance to save them? This puts many nurses, caregivers and medical practitioners in between a rock and a hard place. It gets even worse when you had interacted with the patient and got to create a good bond with them.

Having to bear the burden is quite hard as it is. And facing the family of the deceased is even harder. Such is a situation that I couldn’t wish on anyone.

Difference in a Professional Opinion

Well, at the point at which you are practicing, you already have covered the grounds on medicine and studied the complete anatomy of the human body while understanding the ailments afflicted to each part. However, at times there could be a variation in terms of opinion between nurses and doctors.

This is seen every other time, but mostly when there are conflicting symptoms and underlying conditions and even though the nurse is under instructions to tend to the patient on a certain procedure, it is not enough to put his/ her mind at rest as a result of conflicting opinions. Of course, tests are done and they get to the bottom of it all and reveal the exact issue if the disagreement hinders the workflow.

However, we all know of some ‘known-it all’ superiors who will get you to do as they say and ask questions later. This leaves the nurse feeling quite discredit.

Healthcare Needs vs Resource Allocation

Ranging right from first world countries to third world countries, resource allocation has been a major issue and this has been evidently seen when it comes to the healthcare industry. While an individual may forego basic amenities such as food and shelter, it is impossible to sweep healthcare under the rug. However, some conditions such as cancer are notorious for draining bank accounts and running people bankrupt as they seek better healthcare.

Resource allocation could be used to evaluate the criteria to be used to distribute resource once they hit the scarcity margin. Well, while some hospitals have established systems on how to handle such scenarios, nurses also share the burden on this one. Having to turn away a patient due to the lack of funds to acquire medication is not an easy task.

The coronavirus pandemic has taught us that at some point in time, it will not really matter how much you have in your bank account if you lack proper healthcare. The onset of the disease struck people with fear and terror and as the world learned more of this disease, it continued spreading and hospitals were flooded and amenities were not enough for everyone. Although people were all facing the same illness, they were treated differently, depending on how they could finance it. Ventilators had never before been upraised in value as they were and their scarcity proved quite brutal.

A day in the shoes of a nurse is not as easy as it looks. It may look glamorous and admirable but behind it, all is a tussle for peace of mind as they are pulled in different directions by decisions. When writing a nursing paper on the same, it should be able to capture the essence of the dilemma in such a way that shows what two choices present themselves and how conflicting they are. With a guide of the topic you can choose for your nursing ethical dilemma assignment topics, all you need now is help from an expert writer to pen it down for you.

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Sample Essay: Economic Policy Formulation in COVID Times

Economics Assignment Question & Answer

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Macroeconomics Assignment Question

You have been selected as a team member of a new presidential council designed to repair, replenish and grow the economy, as well as, sustain the financial markets. The team is designed to take on overhauling the financial system in its key areas such as The Fed, SEC and other regulatory agencies, bond markets, stock markets, credit markets, and businesses of all sizes while still maintaining a fluid environment.  Your report to the president will have to address the problems, conflicts, possible solutions, and ramifications to your possible solutions in great detail.  Please provide evidence to support your premises as to which path you will use to help steer the economy.

Macroeconomics Assignment Answer

Formulation of Economic Policy

Economic policy refers to government economic activity. It covers interest rates, budget systems, the labor market, national ownership and many other government economic initiatives. In general, policies aim at four major objectives: stability of the market, encouragement of economic development, sustainability of business and growth and job creation. Sometimes other objectives, such as military spending or nationalization, produce a harmonic economic success environment.

Fiscal policy is the use of public spending and taxation to influence the economy. Governments are using tax policy to achieve the economic objectives of price stability, full employment and economic growth in order to influence aggregate demand in the economy.

The government has two levers in deciding budgetary policy:

  1. Change composition and tax levels
  2. Change spending levels in many economic sectors.

There are three main types of fiscal policy:

  1. The Neutral approach: This kind of policy is usually employed in an equilibrium economy. In this scenario, government expenses are fully funded via fiscal revenues with a balanced effect on macroeconomic activity.
  2. Expansionary: this kind of strategy is usually implemented in depression to increase economic production. The Gov. spends more money than revenues in this instance.
  3. Contractionary: The goal of this approach is to reduce public debt and to curb inflation. Public spending is lower in this scenario than tax revenue.

The government may play an active role in altering its expenditure or tax level when it lays down fiscal policy. These activities lead to increased or decreased aggregate demand, which is represented in the right or left shift of the aggregate demand (AD) curve.

Source: The Economics Journal

Economic Policy Approaches

It is worth remembering that aggregate demand for an economy is split into four parts: consumption, investment, public expenditure, and net exports. Changes in any of these components cause the curve of aggregate demand to change.

Expansionary fiscal policy is employed during the recession to kick off the economy. It stimulates aggregate demand, which in turn raises economic production and jobs. In adopting expansionary policies, the government raises expenditure, lowers taxes or combines them. Since government expenditure is a component of aggregate demand, more government spending will move demand to the right curve. A tax decrease would leave more discretionary income and boost consumption and savings and move the aggregate demand curve to the right as well. A rise in government expenditure coupled with a decrease in taxes would predictably push the AD curve to the right. The amount of the AD curve shift due to government expenditure relies on the size of the expenditure multiplier, whereas the shift in the AD curve as a result of tax cutting depends on the size of the tax multiplier. Expansionary policy will lead to a budget deficit if government expenses exceed tax income.

When demand-pull inflation exists, a Contractionary fiscal policy is adopted. It may also be used to repay undesirable debt. The government may reduce its expenditure, increase taxes or seek a mix of the two via Contractionary fiscal policy. The AD curve is shifted towards the left by Contractionary fiscal policies. This kind of strategy, if tax receipts exceed government expenditure, leads to a budget surplus.

This kind of strategy, if tax receipts exceed government expenditure, leads to a budget surplus. Keynesian economics, in times of recession, believe that increasing government expenditure and lowering fiscal rates are the best way to stimulate aggregate demand. Keynesians believe that this approach should be used as the main tool for laying the foundation for strong economic growth and full employment in times of recession or low economic activity. The resulting deficit is supposedly repaid during the following boom by an expanded economy.

Consumers consider inflation forecasts every time they purchase, such a house or a car. The nominal rate for loans to buy these goods fluctuates as inflation varies. The nominal rate is the actual rate plus the inflation component expected. Expected inflation also tells economists how the public views the economic direction. Suppose the population expects inflation to increase. This may be caused by a positive demand shock when the economy develops and aggregate demand increases. It may also result from an adverse supply shock, perhaps from rising energy prices and a decrease in total supplies. Anyway, the public may expect the central bank to adopt a currency policy that reduces inflation and leads to higher interest rates. However, if experts foresee inflation to decrease, the public may anticipate a recession. The public may expect short-term monetary expansion and reduced interest rates. Economists are informed about the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy by monitoring expected inflation. Furthermore, tracking expected inflation allows for real interest rates to be projected that isolate inflation impacts. This information is important for investment financing decision-making.

Although inflation expectations may seem to be a highly speculative idea, the activities of the Fed are based on early research by Joseph Livingston, financial journalist for Philadelphia Inquirer. In 1946, economists started a two-year survey of their inflation forecasts. The survey was carried out by the Federal Reserve Bank and other economic research institutions, such as the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan, the United States Statistical Association and the National Bureau for Economic Research, following the death of Livingston in 1969.

These assumptions are similar to present Federal Reserve inflation and the results to date are different. In recent decades, however, the forecasts of economists have become considerably more precise. Economists are continually investigating the form and evolution of inflation and other economic variables.

 Economic Stimulus Program Recommendations In COVID-19 Times

Despite the enormous human costs of recessions, we must assess the policy tools at our disposal and choose those that are most effective in speeding economic recovery during a downturn. In this article, we describe how the economic crisis in Covid-19 has affected various worker groups, what work is being done with fiscal stimulus, what could be done differently in future recessions, and how the states are positioned to thrive economically.

Monetary and fiscal policy are the two sets of policy tools used to support recovery following recessions. During and after a recession, the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy is used to keep interest rates low and reduce unemployment. The fiscal policy refers to the many types of government spending and tax reductions that Congress has enacted. Following the recession, both sets of policy tools may be used to increase demand, expand output, and quickly return the economy to pre-crisis conditions.

In order to be most efficient, a speedy stimulation is essential. A part of the fiscal policy reaction took place automatically under existing programs in the Covid-19 economic slump. These programs are referred regarded as “automatic stabilizers,” since they offer instant stimulus during a recession without Congressional intervention. This is why automatic stabilizers such as supplementary nutritional assistance, unemployment insurance and Medicaid, as well as automatic tax revenue stabilization, are so useful.

It is generally accepted that fiscal stimulus under HEROES lessened the severity of the Covid-19 economic slump. The CBO estimates that the fiscal stimulus package in 2021 resulted in GDP being 0.5 to 3% higher than it would otherwise have been (CBO 2021). But which fiscal stimulus components were most useful? Incentives aiming at families with low incomes or otherwise restricted funds tend to be more successful, while corporate tax cuts tend to be less effective (Whalen and Reichling 2015). In some estimates, government expenditure is usually more successful than tax cuts, partly because employees only spend a fraction of the stimulus given by the tax regime. Across all stimulus types, fiscal stimulus is generally assumed to be more effective in recessions and less effective in expansion (Morley and Panovska, 2014) due to slackness in labor and capital markets (i.e. the available resources are not fully utilized), which enables fiscal stimulus to increase total production.

Regardless of all money related and financial measures made to lessen the seriousness of the monetary droop at Coronavirus, creation has not yet recuperated to either its pre-downturn pattern or imminent yield (CBO 2021b). Joblessness has quite recently gotten back to a pre-downturn level, while other leeway work market pointers, for example, the level of representatives working low maintenance for financial purposes stay high (Department of Work Insights [BLS] 2021a). In addition, states are not prepared as expected for the following downturn. Blustery day holds in many nations keep on being deficient to manage a critical and startling drop in charge pay. These legislatures should either decrease fundamental taxpayer driven organizations—which hurt both state individuals and the more extensive economy—or rely upon the government for monetary help.

Moreover, despite the fact that joblessness and destitution are on the ascent, two key projects – transitory help for families out of luck and the joblessness protection – have responded in an unexpected way. UI guarantee went up because of the developing number of recently jobless representatives buffering qualified specialists from misfortunes. Not all recently jobless individuals were equipped for UI, yet the program was by and large compelling in its objective. Conversely, TANF’s caseload rose little as destitution expanded. In spite of the fact that TANF has a job in soothing extreme destitution, it’s anything but yet intended to respond proficiently to or fill in as a programmed stabilizer against recurrent neediness changes.

A key reason of the monetary procedure of the Hamilton Undertaking is that drawn out success is best accomplished through empowering financial turn of events and wide contribution in development. The Hamilton project gives the accompanying nine realities about the Coronavirus financial emergency and the kinds of monetary upgrade to decrease the seriousness of future downturns.

Utilization of financial policing powers

Strategy creators rely upon two arrangements of instruments to advance recuperation after a downturn. The Central bank’s financial approach is used to keep up with low loan costs and decline joblessness during and after a downturn. The financial approach covers a few sorts of government use and assessment decrease carried out by Congress. After the downturn, both arrangement sets might be utilized to support interest and consequently increment creation and make the economy more pre-recessionary.

The two duties available to the public authority for deciding monetary approach are use and assessments. The public authority is expanding its expansionary financial arrangement, reducing government expenditures or a blend of both. The ascent in consumption and assessment decreases will prompt an increment in all out interest, albeit the expansion depends on spending and expense multipliers.

Expansionary strategy avocation

The multiplier in government use is one that shows the adjustment of total interest as a result of a specific change in use. The multiplier effect of government spending is clear when an increment in use prompts an expansion in pay and utilization. The expense multiplier is the expansion effect of an adjustment of total interest charges. The decrease in charges is practically identical to the ascent in government use for money and utilization.

Expansionary monetary arrangement may have a monetary multiplier impact on the Gross domestic product. The financial multiplier is the proportion of the adjustment of public income to the adjustment of government use that produces it. This multiplier is unconfutable with the financial multiplier. The expanded effect on public pay is named the multiplier impact when this multiplier outperforms one.

The multiplier impact happens when an underlying expansion in government spending prompts higher wages and utilization, an increment in pay and, accordingly, to more purchaser spending, and so forth, prompting a generally speaking higher pay than the first extra consumption. As such, an underlying change in the total interest may prompt a numerous adjustment of total creation (and hence the total pay that it produces). The multiplier impact has been utilized to help the viability of government consumption or duty alleviation to support total interest.

Assume, for instance, that the public authority contributes 100,000 dollars to build a manufacturing plant. The cash isn’t lost yet rather becomes pay rates for the developers, pay for the providers, and so on The developers will have more optional cash, and spending will expand, which will likewise build total interest. Assume likewise that the recipients of the developers’ expanded costs thus spend their new income, increment interest and maybe utilization, etc. The development in the total national output is the all out of the net gain increments for everybody concerned. In the event that the developer gets 100,000 dollars and pays 80,000 dollars to subcontractors he has an overall gain of 20,000 dollars and a proportionate expansion in extra cash.

To support the economy during the downturn, governments may utilize monetary strategies – expanded government spending or tax breaks. A gauge of the upgraded creation prompted by a specific expansion in government consumption or duty decline is the monetary multiplier. Any multiplier more than zero implies that greater government use builds in general creation. More than one financial multiplier shows an ascent in private area creation combined with an increment in government yield.

There are conflicts among financial specialists on the exact size of the distinctive monetary multipliers, as indicated by Auerbach, Storm and Harris (2010), which is generally thought to be more prominent during downturns than under ordinary monetary conditions when the economy nearly has its maximum capacity Fazzari, Morley and Panovska(2014); additionally the contradicting position of Ramey and Zubairy(2014). This is likely on the grounds that slumps in both work and capital business sectors are set apart by a slackness (for example the accessible assets are not utilized in full), which empowers financial motivators to help generally creation. Multipliers are likewise more noteworthy when lower-pay people are bound to utilize the boost in the use or tax breaks (Parker et al. 2013; Whalen and Reichling 2015).

Reasoning for Duty decrease

Tax reductions may likewise offer supportive improvement, yet multiplier gauges for the most part are more modest and more unpredictable than use programs projections. The assessments shift from 1.8 to 0.33 in 2021 for the sped up deterioration of the kids’ tax reduction, which empowers organizations effectively to delay charge commitments.

While a few tax reductions had more than one monetary multiplier during the emergency, just the Youngster Tax break multipliers and the refundable single amount financial discount in 2021 were as yet higher than one. Also, their qualities were lower than for consumption multipliers, for example, raising SNAP instalments and expanding UI benefits. Spending projects or tax breaks expected to people with lower pay will in general have bigger multipliers, since they are more disposed than people with higher pay to spend what they get. In addition, measures like sped up devaluation and decrease in corporate assessment rates, both profiting organizations, are less invigorating than singular tax reductions.

The expense multiplier is by the by lower than the use multiplier. This is on the grounds that when the public authority goes through cash it purchases things straightforwardly, which brings about the whole change in spending being applied to total interest. At the point when the public authority brings down charges all things considered, the extra cash increments. Segment of the discretionary cash flow is spent, however part is kept. The set aside cash doesn’t add to the multiplier impact.

Maintain an effective federal funds rate

The Federal Reserve has two main functions as the central financial institution of the United States, commonly called its dual mandate:

  1. Preserve price stability and
  2. Assist the economy stay close to the highest possible level of sustainable employment.

Over the most recent 50 years, as the economy has gone through every downturn, joblessness has risen a normal of 2.5 rate focuses. The central bank reacts to these work market changes by utilizing open-market tasks, including the procurement and offer of protections, bringing down the government store rate (the loan fee at which organizations loan stores to different foundations short-term on the Federal Reserve) and as of late growing its asset report. At the point when monetary conditions fall apart, government store decreases diminish financial loan fees, urge endeavours to extend and enlist more individuals, and urge buyers to spend more, accordingly lessening the joblessness rate.

Employment stimulation

The financial emergency in Covid-19 has essentially diminished the quantity of representatives in the United States, yet these cuts have been concentrated among guys, more youthful individuals, and lesser instructed laborers. This might be an outcome of a purported business stepping stool that sensibiliser’s low gifted workers and youngsters to the monetary cycle excessively (Beaudry, Green, and Sand 2013). Figure 2a shows that from December 2019 to December 2021 the utilized extent of the populace matured 25 and more seasoned by instructive level and sex changes, demonstrating a work market drop. Business dropped all the more steeply for low-level workers, in spite of the fact that ladies with not exactly a secondary school degree just saw a 3.4 percent work misfortune. In all instruction and age classifications, guys would in general endure more prominent abatements than ladies. The work share for guys without a secondary school degree diminished most; note that men will in general endure additional during downturns, principally on the grounds that they will in general be occupied with more repeating areas (Hoynes, Miller, and Schaller 2012).

In conclusion, adopting an expansionary fiscal policy in line with modern Keynesian principles would raise the GDP with a relatively higher multiplier. Regulated Government spending in long term infrastructure would stimulate the current economic drain as well as position the country for future economic success. Achieving short-term economic recovery and long term sustainability is a multiple of both tax and government spending policies. The government should provide support as well as offer affordable and appropriate tax cuts to facilitate gross investment. Affordable FED rate should also be set out to facilitate loan capital to create the supply push needed to multiply the economic growth.


CBO. (2021). Congressional Budget office. Retrieved from Congressional Budget office: https://www.cbo.gov/data/budget-economic-data

Roberto, C., &Ayhan, K. II Economic Impact of US Budget Policies. In US Fiscal Policies and Priorities for Long-Run Sustainability. International Monetary Fund.

Beaudry P., Green,D., and Sand B. (2013). The Great Reversal in the Demand for Skill and Cognitive Tasks.

Hoynes, H., Miller, D. L., & Schaller, J. (2012). Who suffers during recessions?. Journal of Economic perspectives26(3), 27-48.Whalen, C. J., &Reichling, F. (2015). The fiscal multiplier and economic policy analysis in the United States. Contemporary Economic Policy33(4), 735-746.

Parker, Jonathan A., Nicholas S. Souleles, David S. Johnson, and Robert McClelland. “Consumer spending and the economic stimulus payments of 2008.” American Economic Review 103, no. 6 (2013): 2530-53.

Fazzari, S. M., Morley, J., &Panovska, I. (2015). State-dependent effects of fiscal policy. Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics19(3), 285-315.

Zubairy, S. (2014). On fiscal multipliers: Estimates from a medium scale DSGE model. International Economic Review55(1), 169-195.

Fazzari, S. M., Morley, J., &Panovska, I. (2020). When is discretionary fiscal policy effective?. Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics.


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Essay on Corona Virus

Corona Virus

What is corona virus, what causes it, how can I protect myself and more importantly, what should I know about corona virus? These are familiar questions that are running through everyone minds all over the globe right from the most powerful man to the little boy in the village. However, there is only so much we can learn about corona virus given that it is a new phenomenon to us. So how safe are we and how long is this virus going to be around, is there a vaccine? However, despite the fact that I cannot give you all these answers I can walk you through all what is known about the corona virus. Hey! It doesn’t hurt to be informed.

What is Corona Virus?

corona virus essay sampleCOVID-19 is a virus that scientist know very little about in the human body since all that is known of this virus has only been encountered in animals. Corona virus was first encountered in human being in December 2019 in Wuhan China. The main challenge that it posed was the fact that the government did not know about this fast enough until bodies were found lying on the streets and this made it earn its epidemic label. Human beings have been known to have quite a strong immune system, though it has been severely tested over the eye and has mutated to become stronger but this is new even to the body and this makes it more strenuous and the body gives in quite fast. At first, the virus was known as ‘corona virus’ but eventually, thanks to the international scientific naming standard it was named ‘covid-19’. As a matter of fact, this is an abbreviation for ‘corona virus disease’ having COVID-19 stand for ‘CO’ ‘corona,’ ‘VI’ for ‘virus,’ and ‘D’ for disease and 19 for the year in which it was found.

In other words, corona virus is what we would call a textbook/ novel illness as it has only been experienced/ explored theoretically and even then not to the extent to which it has manifested itself. Scientists on a global scale as in a race to not only find a cure but also a vaccine for this new epidemic that is causing ripples of panic around the globe as it makes surprise appearances in different parts of the world and claiming more lives. However, thanks to the enhanced communication systems in place today and the internet, people are now more informed on what preventive measure sot take and also getting to learn more about covid-19. However, on the downside, the internet is also causing havoc, as well as people, sharing rumors surrounding the virus, this has in one way or the other affected certain people and action has been taken on certain individuals.

A report by the CDC showed that as a matter of fact, Corona virus is not the first of its kind, however, covid-19 is unique. There are other forms of corona virus that have been found such as corona virus 229E, and patients are handled and treated quite differently when it comes to the both of them. This is due to its different symptoms and reactions and effect on the human body. So what are the symptoms associated with this disease?

Symptoms of Corona Virus

At first, bodies were found lying all over the streets randomly and not much was known about this, at least to the common citizens of Wuhan, but with time, as scientist continue digging up more into this, we have come to learn more about its symptoms.

Respiratory illness

According to all the victims of the corona virus, the common similarity between them all is that they were all faced with respiratory infections which cuts right through form the nose to the lung and general breathing.


There is not much to explain around coughing, but this has been known as one of the major mediums of transmission of the virus.

Shortness of breath

coronavirus symptomsThis is in relation to the above symptoms that affect the respiratory system and this tends to deprive the body of the ability to breathe normally and in severe cases is regarded as fatal.

However, these are not the final findings as this is all new to us as well, but it is based on the observation that has been made on the patients that have been admitted after testing positive for the virus. After infection, the symptoms may appear between 2-14 days and given that it has no cure yet, depending on the severity it ranges from mild symptoms, severe illness and even death.

Have you heard of zoonotic diseases? Well, let me shed some light on that in relation to covid-19. Zoonotic diseases according to Wikipedia are ‘ (plural zoonoses, or zoonotic diseases)

an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites that spread from non-human animals (usually vertebrates) to humans. This means that it can be transmitted from animals to human beings. This could explain how it was first found in a market in china that traded in ‘uncommon’ animal meat such as that of bats. I dare think that that were it not for such poor lifestyle choices than maybe, just maybe this could have been avoided, which leads me to the next segment,

How To Prevent Spread of the Virus?

Avoid close contact with people who are sick.

Given that this is a respiratory disease, this means that air is one of the mediums that could be used in its transmission, which is why the government and all other related departments are highly discouraging large gatherings of people and even quarantining regions that have been exposed to the infection to prevent its spread. Make sure that you are not within a minimum radius of 6 feet from an infected person and do not stay for long around them and also avoid having physical contact with them as well.

Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth

As shallow as this may, it could be a real lifesaver. Our hands come into contact with different surfaces over time and by this, I mean a whole range of surfaces from areas that have been exposed to the viruses and even to the basic of petting our animals. During this period, make as much effort to minimize contact of your hands with your eyes, nose and mouth.

Stay home when sick.

The only way to avoid spreading such an epidemic is being human enough to spare others from getting the virus by not working around circumstances that could facilitate its spread.

When coughing or sneezing use a tissue and dispose of it properly after use.

This helps avoid spraying the air with the virus that could be quite hazardous to those around you.

Wear a facemask

Desperate times call for desperate measures and this for sure is one of those desperate times. A facemask could be the reason as to why you will survive this epidemic. A face mask prevents you from breathing in contaminated air and at the same time prevents you (if infected) from further spreading it

Maintain proper hygiene

It is now time that the human race went back to the basics of proper hygiene to ensure their survival. Proper hygiene costs you nothing and the simple practices of washing your hands before and after going to the bathroom, before you eat and after sneezing and coughing and disinfecting your house have proven to be once again very crucial. This is not only for the case of corona virus but also for many more illnesses, you might escape the claws of corona but fall prey of another illness.

Cook meat and eggs properly.

As we have already established, corona virus has traced its origin form non –human animals, and given that most people take meat and eggs then the disease is prone to either spread or reproduce in animal meat and produce. As in the case in the meat market in China, it spread from the meet. The CDC is highly recommending that both business in the hospitality industry and people in the homes, ensure that they cook meat and eggs properly before consuming them. Prevention is always better than cure.

Are you infected with the virus? What do you do if you have been close to someone who has been infected?

  1. If you suspect that you have been exposed to the virus make sure that you seek for medical attention, HOWEVER, make sure that you alert your medical officer prior to your visit so that they can get ready and also avoid its spread in the hospital.
  2. Keep track of your symptoms

The only way to know that you are experiencing is right from the symptoms and in this case, you are to look out for respiratory symptoms. However, they could just be any other disease, but make sure that you don’t take it for granted and monitor the symptoms and seek medical help.

Avoid crowded spaces

The subway shared cabs and even buses should be used as your last option both for your safety and for those around you. Ensure that you stay home when you do not have anything of importance to do out there. This limits your possibility of coming into contact with the virus.

Transport in relation to covid-19

The world has turned into a global village and the thought of waking up in one continent and sleeping in the other is not an impossibility anymore, however, this is definitely not the time for that. Governments all around the world have imposed travel bans to china and even more restrictions on what comes to and from China. Leave alone the financial perspective of this and look at the emotional impact for those quarantined (trapped) there and this will tell you that this is only a real case scenario of desperate time calling for desperate measure. Wuhan China is as per now no one’s favorite destination place and they will also take some time to recover from that but this is all for the good of the human race.

Not only are people discouraged from travelling to china but also from using crowded travel facilities such as subways, trains and busses.


To this moment, there has not been any given treatment for corona virus and the best that we have come is simply giving medical care for the infected and relieving them of any discomfort associated with the virus.


This segment cannot be complete without talking about all the speculations around the corona virus outbreak both form reliable sources and rumors as well. There has been a major concern on whether people can test negative then positive for the virus. Well, the answer is yes. The argument behind this is that the virus could take a while before it is detected which is why suspected carriers of the virus are put under quarantine to fully ascertain whether they are infected or not.

On the other hand, like most viruses, one of the factors that propels or influences it is the change in weather patterns, so the science community is still looking at the possibility of looking at the role that weather plays in this. However, if they have success in this, then they will have made a major milestone in treating this.

Is this natural or artificial? Well for those who love a good conspiracy theory might be on to something as people tend to think that corona virus has ‘lab experiment’ written all over it, but honestly, there is no proof to this yet. However, just like any other theory, it will be tested on the scale of time to see if it holds. However other people have speculated that there is apa6tern of certain new epidemics happening after 100 years. True or false? I’ll leave that for you to decide.

However, as far as science is concerned those are the facts surrounding the corona virus otherwise known as covid-19. However, I still have my utmost faith in the human race that once again we hall rise above this and despite the fact we have lost a couple of good people, we can only hope for better days ahead. I do believe that every one of us has a role to play during this time and the very first duty is keeping yourself safe by maintaining hygienic, personal health, cooking meat and eggs properly and not forgetting seeking for medical help in case of any symptom.

Nursing Diagnosis Plan for Corona Virus

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CIPS: How To Progress Procurement Career in Dubai

Reasons You Should Study CIPS: Advance Procurement Career in Dubai

cips assignment helpAre you based in UAE, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, Qatar or Kuwait and you are looking to advance your career in procurement or supply chain management? Then studying CIPS (Chartered Institute of Procurement & Supply) is a sure way to climb the corporate ladder.

The education system is quite vast and always growing daily, more information is coming to light, new methods are being developed and truth be told, you have to be not only up to date but also competent for you to be at the top of your game. With this in mind, you have to steer in the right direction and catch a wave right to the top. Procurement is not as many people think it is; many people will think of procurement as just making necessary arrangements for purchases but this goes a long way into the ever-competitive market and gets even more complicated in the face of scarcity. Which is why every company is looking for a top-notch procurement officer to hold their office, right? Dubai, being one of the world-leading commerce centers, it is only fair to say that they have set the bar quite high and for you to progress your procurement career here you have to study CIPS. This is why.

Increases competence.

Competence in this line of work is of high importance. Procurement involves a lot around it and it varies from field to field. Some will require the procurement officer to comb through the initial stages while some projects will need them to see it through to the end. At the top of every employer’s head is how to get quality at a very cheap or affordable cost. This means working on a budget. Having a procurement officer who has to source for extra funds in between a project fr unforeseen costs that are considered quite reckless leaves a lot to be desired. However, with the prior preparation of the market by professionals who have been in the market with the use of not only real-life examples but also current statistics, you can be sure to be well equipped for the market.

Being that you will not be the first one in the market from CIPS you can be sure you will be riding on a good name made by your predecessors; that should account for something, right? At this time and age, competence talks volume than a bunch of credentials.

Equips with leadership skills.

The educational value of CIPS cannot be described by a couple of paragraphs but it can for sure be translated into leadership skills that are instilled in all students. Holding an office as crucial as the procurement office not only gives you a good title to ride on but also responsibility and a team behind you. This means that your decisions reflect directly on your team and the company’s finances. CIPS helps grow an all-rounder kind of leader who is able to manage the combined efforts and act as both the checkpoint and glue to the team.

Morals in the corporate sector seem to have been washed away with time, with people wanting a cut of every transaction and trust levels going down every now and then, which leaves me thinking what has CIPS done to correct this? Given that procurement acts as a direct backdoor to fraud, they have instilled a solid moral compass to their students which has been verified by employees out there, making a CIPS student an easier candidate on any interview panel.

Project management.

As any good businessman will tell you, whenever a business opportunity presents itself, rise to the task and figure out how to do it later on, which is a principle that is quite dominant in the world today. However, being a procurement student of CIPS you will be taught to foresee the dangers that come with these. Managing a project starts way before the project even begins, t stats form doing background checks on all potential contractors and looking at their success stories to ascertain their worth. After all, I do believe that you have to get the best out of everything. And as a good manager will tell you, the success of any project, starts right from planning and sourcing stage, the other bit of seeing it through is just implementation of what was already laid out.

Financial management.

Scarcity is a word that many procurement officers are familiar with every now and then as they try sourcing for materials and hunting for quality. However, when you place the right value to any product you will be surprised at how plenty it was in the market. Bidding is on the top of the list of what they do on a daily basis. Studying CIPS will tell you that even though you can get some products easily for a high price, it is alternatively advisable to ‘play hard’ and get the same at a cheaper price. People out here are out to make money and the more money you save your company, for equal quality, it will translate to your financial accounts and allow you to budget for more at less cost.

“At the end of the day, you have to be good at what you do to stand a chance in surviving in the market. Being in this field for this long, I can tell you that some companies go down simply because of being short-sighted. Taking risks is the first step to any business and keeping in touch with trends will always keep you in the loop of being top of your game, I’m only grateful that CIPS had me ready in advance” said one of the top business executives in Abu Dhabi.

CIPS is offered in differed levels of study and it sets you apart from other candidates in the field and it gets you ready for the business market out there and allows you to not only manage businesses under other people but also run your own as well. Having a system that not only gives you theoretical training but also keeps you in the light on current systems and trends in the market and how to predict and go about them is the kind of system that I would vouch for everyone to enroll to. It would be a shame having to find this all out the hard way.

How To Pass CIPS Assignments

To attain certification in CIPS you are required to pass all the seven levels. It requires a lot of dedication and consistent studying. You require at least 350 hours of studying in each level. Therefore, you need tutors to assist you complete assignments and help you revisie. Our CIPS assignment help is designed to provide you with exceptional assignment solutions to make your professional learning comfortable and smooth. We are contracted by students in UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait and UK to assist them write quality CIPS assignments and projects for them. 

McDonald’s SWOT Analysis

McDonald’s SWOT Analysis

So your professor wants you to perform a SWOT analysis for MacDonald’s.  And you’ve decided the best way to kick off the assignment is to browse around a little. Somehow you found yourself here. This post will conduct a McDonald’s SWOT analysis so you can replicate the process for your assignment. A SWOT analysis is a tool that helps savvy investors and competent executives make strategic business decisions. The process involved is pretty simple. However, it’s not always easy.


SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. A  SWOT analysis methodically examines each of these 4 aspects to see if there are any insights hidden therein.

Generally, strengths are factors that enable an entity to seize any opportunities that are up for grabs. Threats, on the other hand, tend to conspire with weaknesses to further complicate things for a business. 

You’ll do well to keep this understanding in mind as we cruise through this MacDonald’s SWOT analysis.  In this process, we’ll spend sufficient time deliberating on each of the 4 aspects mentioned above. Weseek to understand how each aspect strengthens or weakens MacDonald’s.

We’ll discuss each component under a separate subheading so we can give it adequate attention. Another reason we’ll do that is to keep the analysis organized.  Before we embark on the journey, it’s critical toknow what MacDonald’s does.

MacDonald’s: A Brief History and What the Company Does

McDonald’s SWOT Analysis

As Napoleon Hill (1937) so aptly states in Think and Grow rich, adversity carries within itself the seeds of success. No person who follows Hill’s advice — knowingly or unknowingly— ever gives up. Maurice and RichardMacDonald (brothers) had failed in a movie business in New England. But they were not willing to quit. Instead, they relocated to California and founded their very first McDonald restaurant, which was merely a hamburger stand (1940).

Over the years, they labored hard. They also strategized hard. The year 1948 was a defining one in their entrepreneurial journey. In that year, the dynamic duo incorporated the Speedee Service System which featured the “soon to be famous” 15 cents apiece hamburgers. 

The success the brothers saw must have inspired them to introduce franchising into their overall business strategy. As a result, the business grew into 10 restaurants, nine of which were franchises. You can learn more about the company from its official website.

Ray Kroc Appears on the Scene

Before the money and fame, Ray Kroc sold milkshake mixing machines. That’s how he ran into the Macdonald brothers. Kroc possessedgreat salesmanship skills. It’s not hard to figure out why the brothers let him become agent for their franchising business. Kroc would later (1961) acquire the business from the brothers for $2.7 million. The deal’s value was a colossal sum those days.

To organize the business he’d bought, he established a company called McDonald’s System, Inc. The company’s name would later change to present day’s MacDonald’s Corp. Even though the company was founded in California, its headquarters are in West Loop, Chicago. Before 2018, the company’s headquarters sat in Oak Brook, Illinois.

The New Owner’s Vision

It turned out that Kroc had a really huge vision for his new business. Initially, he planned to plant 1,000 restaurants in the United States. But the business ended up expanding into international markets. Canada and Puerto Rico are some of very first new locations McDonald’s grew into in 1967.

Today, the well-known fast-food behemoth owns or controls restaurants in 120+ countries. According to Statista (2018), McDonald’s Corp ownedat least 37,855 restaurants as of 2018.

Currently, franchisees own 92.7 percent of the business, according to Forbes (Feb 4, 2019). Eventually, the company intends to have 95 percent of its business operated by franchisees.  Forbes also says that McDonald’s, Starbucks, and Restaurant Brands International are the three largestfast-food chains on the planet. Other sources show that McDonald’s is the biggest chain of fast-food restaurants (in terms of sales) worldwide.

Best Selling McDonald’s Products

They include McGriddles breakfast sandwich, premium salads, chicken nuggets, baked apple pie, and the Egg MucMuffin. Other delicacies include snack wraps, Happy Meals, and of course, the famous Big Mac.  But did you know McDonald’s is the largest distributor of toys? You mean McDonald’s sells more tots than toy titans Hasbro and Mattel? Yes, it sounds incredible, but it’s true. This marketing trick aims to win over kids to their side from an early age. The strategy works.  Actually, 40 percent of kids aged 2 – 11 regularly request their parents to take them to McDonald’s. That request happens as regularly as once a week. That’s pretty much building tomorrow’s loyal customer base today.

The company also passes out books and gadgets especially through so-called Happy Meals. This marketing trick is highly effective.

Now let’s proceed straight to the core business at hand: developing McDonald’s SWOT analysis.

What Makes McDonald’s Strong?

As stated above, McDonald is among the three biggest fast-food businesses globally. Obviously, being that big does give a business certain strengths. Perhaps it’s more accurate to state that McDonald’s leveraged various strengths to clinch its current market dominance.  And because the company is now performing well (judging from 2018’s numbers), it can only become more successful and stronger. As they say, success births success. Let’s look at a few factors that come together into McDonald’s strengths.

1. A Brand that Enjoys International Recognition

McDonald’s sits pretty among the world’s most recognizable brands.  Maybe the company isn’t as recognizable as Toyota or Coca-Cola.  But that’s probably because these companies are in pretty much every country in the world.

That said, many people in the world today can quickly recognize McDonald’s logo. The logo brings together two “Golden Arches,” forming a logo that resembles the letterM. The architecture of the first franchised restaurant (1952) featured two arches joined together into an M-like shape. Very few people in countries where McDonald’s operates wouldn’t immediately recognize the company’s logo.

Being well-known comes with various benefits. Customers tend to trust well-known companies over ones no one’s ever heard of. Brand recognition is a great asset when it comes to opening branches in foreign locations.

That’s why everyone in Kenya (ever heard of Kenya?) was talking about McDonald’s in early 2018. Newspapers had reported that the company was planning to set up shop in that country. And everyone there was talking about McDonald’s as if it were a brand they’d known all their lives.

2. Highly Efficient Systems

McDonald’s restaurants operate the same way the world over. A customer who orders a burger in Morocco or a coffee in Mauritiusgets the same seamless service. In other words, McDonald’s is one well-coordinated system — a system that works.

Many small little-known restaurants probably make better burgers than McDonald’s.  But they’ve not managed to design and implement a consistently effective service delivery system.

Also, a McDonald’s Big Macalways tastes like a McDonald’s Big Mac! Most people like consistency and predictability. And this giant chain of fast-food restaurants serves exactly that. It’s accurate to say Ray Kroc bought an efficient system rather than merely a chain of successful restaurants.

Thanks to its super-efficient systems, McDonald’s cranks out roughly 75 burgers every second. Here’s another astounding fact about the company’s efficiency.  The company serves about 810 customers every singlesecond!That’saccording to McDonald’s Every Second, a site that shows real-time numbers.

3. A Business Model that Works: Franchising

The company has been refranchising its restaurants for some time now. Refranchising allows the company to expand without needing to invest vast amounts of money. The business model enables MacDonald’s to keep operational costs low and manageable.

The chain intends to eventually place 95% of its business in the competent hands of franchisees. That model lets the company rake in tons of money in franchisefees. The franchisee typically pays $45,000 in fees. In addition, the person must have close to $1,000,000 in liquid capital before they can start operating. Franchising ropes in others to help run the empire. Meanwhile, the company retains 100% control of the systems that new owners use to manage their business.

4. A Huge, Diversified Income

McDonald’s sells the majority of its products in the United States. But the company has a presence in 120+ countries. What does that mean? It means that the company doesn’t have to worry too much about risk concentration in any one country. Excellent performance in a few countries offsets “lowerthan expected” performance in other locations. 

5. Annual Dividend Hikes — Happy Investors

McDonald’s has consistently made sure investors smile all the way to the bank since 1976. That was the first year the company paid out dividends. What’s different about these dividends is that they have been increasing over the last 20+ years. 

Over that period, dividends grew at a steady annual rate (average) of 17.3 percent. In fact, the company’s dividend yield surpassed that of the fast-food sub-industryin 27 percent (in 2017).

Generally, happy investors are an asset. They can help a business raise capital for growth without much struggle.

What are McDonald’s Weaknesses?

In this section of our McDonald’s SWOT analysis, we’ll focus on the factors that somehow weaken the company.

Well, there aren’t that many weaknesses to talk of. But there are at least two that the company grapples with. What makes these weaknesses big problems is that there’s nothing much the business can do about them.  Let’s now look at McDonald’s main weaknesses.

1. Overreliance on Low-skilled Workers

The vast majority of McDonald’s workers are semi-skilled. They’re mostly people who can’t for some reason find a better-paying job. Some are college students. You bet most workers have only a high school diploma.Actually, one doesn’t need to have any skills to work there. Quite naturally, flipping burgers has never been a job that pays well.

Consequently, these employees have trouble staying motivated. They see their job as a stepping stone to something bigger elsewhere.  In the end, a great number of McDonald’s workers leave.

That means the company is always looking for people to hire. And since most people who accept such jobs aren’t trained, they need training. And training employees is expensive.

Unfortunately, there’s nothing much McDonald’s can do about this sad state of affairs. The company just has to grin and bear it. 

2. Being Associated with Unhealthy Food

When people talk of unhealthy food in general, fast-food chains like McDonald’s come to mind. And that’s can’t be good thing.

No wonder the company is nowadays trying to include healthy items such as smoothies on the menu. But as things stand, consumers will likely continue associating the company with unhealthy food.

Sure, notions and ideas change. But it might be years before food lovers start associating McDonald’s with healthy delicacies.

What Opportunities Can McDonald’s Seize?

The company has weaknesses and threats to worry about, certainly. But it is best if the company doesn’t focus too much on them.

Luckily, there are several opportunities McDonald’s can grab and dramatically improve the bottom line. Let’s look at some of these opportunities.

1. Expansion into Underserved Markets

Africa is a continent that companies like McDonald’s may want to give a little more attention to in the future. That’s because Africa is home to more than 1.2 billion people as of 2019. In addition, experts estimate that fully 50 percent of global population growth will happen in Africa by 2050.

Well, African countries aren’t the most affluent in the world. And the majority of people there struggle financially. That said, McDonald’s sells cheap food — food many people in the continent can afford. Little wonder Subway and Kentucky Fried Chicken have positioned themselves to cash in on Africa’s appetite for tasty food.

Currently, the company operates in only four African countries namely Morocco, Egypt, Mauritius, and South Africa. These 4 countries combined boast under 400 McDonald’s restaurants. Compare that to the more than 500 restaurants the company has in the Philippines. Or to the 509 restaurants it operated in Spain as of 2018.

Why Africa?

Global Finance (2019) recently prepared a list of the world’s richest and poorest countries. The data the report presents is quite interesting. It measures each country’s GDP. But GDP isn’t a good measure of wealth of people living in a given country.

With that in mind, Global Finance used GDP numbers that were adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP-adjusted GDP numbers give a much clearer idea of people’s ability to buy goods and services.

Exciting Insights

Consider this: McDonald’s runs more restaurants in the Philippines than it does in the entire African continent. But the numbers reveal that’s not the way it should be.

The PPP-adjusted GDP for the Philippines is $9,494. That compares very closely to the GDP-PPP for Morocco which stands at $9,284.

It Gets More Interesting

The GDP-PPP for Gabonis higher than that of South Africa, Morocco, Mauritius, Egypt, or Philippines. Seriously, why aren’t there McDonald’s restaurants in Gabon?

Algeria, Botswana, Tunisia, Libya, Namibia, and Eswatini are other African countries with a higher GDP-PPP than that of the Philippines.

And of course, there’s Nigeria with a200+ million populationwhose median age hovers around 18 years. There was talk of McDonald’s plans to enter Nigeria in 2015. Unfortunately, those intentions became nothing in the end.

Evidently, there’s lots of untapped potential in Africa. McDonald can move in and get a piece of this pie.

2. Adding Healthier Food Items

Nobody wants food full of sugars and carbs anymore. People everywhere seem to have joined a rapidlyexpanding religion called health-consciousness.

But that’s a blessing in disguise.

McDonald’s can add as many healthy options as it wants to the current product offerings. And it’s already doing so. Smoothies, for instance, are now a constant in the company’s restaurants.

Healthier Options Fetch Better Prices

These days, the company’s restaurants are also serving a range of healthy food. One can now order fruit and maple oat meal. Or a fruit and yoghurt parfait. A customer can even order an “artisan” grilled chicken sandwich. The great thing is McDonald’s can charge premium prices for these healthy product offerings.

 In the end, it’s a good thing that people are quitting junk food. The only thing that can limit the items the company can add is its imagination and innovation.

3. Being Associated with the United States

McDonald’s is based in the United States. And that means a lot. For various reasons, many people across the world look at American goods somewhat differently. In the minds of many, the U.S. is still the greatest country on Earth. It’s a country that pursues excellence with diligence.

Many people want to be able to say their product is “made in the USA.”  Robert Von Goeben, co-founder of Green Toys in California, rightly says that “made in the USA” means “quality.”

As a result, there’s always going to be demand for US-made products. It doesn’t matter whether those products are Levis Strauss Jeans or the famous McDonald’s Big Macs. The perception can greatly help the company when it comes time to expand into Africa and other places. 

4. Low-interest Dollar-denominated Capital

There’s lots of affordable debt in the U.S. today. Given its performance numbers, McDonald’s can easily access cheap loans and other types of debt. Capital availability is a hugely critical factor when it comes to raising funds for venturing into new markets.

Combine availability of cheap dollar-denominated debt with the fact that the company makes enormous profits each year.  What do you get? You get a giant with lots of potential to grow into a behemoth.

What Threats is McDonald’s Looking at? 

Are there any factors McDonald’s needs to pay particular attention to? Yes, the company shouldn’t rest on its laurels.

It should innovate continually, churning out products that keep customers satisfied but still yearning for more. 

Let’s now discuss 4 main threats that the company potentially faces.

1. A Rapidly Multiplying “Tribe” of Health-conscious Consumers

We saw how McDonald’s can take advantage of changing tastes and preferences. We mentioned that the company can introduce new, healthier delicacies to cater to the needs of increasingly health-conscious consumers.   But the emerging trend should worry McDonald’s a bit.

The Famous 2004 Documentary

A 2004 documentary called “Super Size Me” did a massive amount of harm to the company. The documentary featured Morgan Spurlock. The person’s health continued to worsen over a one-month period during which he ate only McDonald’s food. After that, many started looking at fast-food in a whole new way.

Burgers can make people grow fat fast.But burgers are also what McDonald’s is best known for. In fact, the company sells the highest number of burgers in the fast-food market. That means sales from this item forms a critical part of the total revenue earned. 

For that reason, the business can’t abruptly abandon burgers and other kinds of similar food. It’s been selling burgers for more than 6 decades, remember.

Meanwhile, more and more people continue to join the health-conscious movement. And that puts the company in a tough spot. Certainly, more consumers adopting healthier habits is a positive thing. Butthat development remains a threat to the company’s earning potential.

2.  Competition in Local and International Markets

Competition is a hard fact of life in almost every business and industry under the Sun. If a business never worries about competition, it’s most probably a monopoly. McDonald’s operates in an environment that sees increasing competition from companies engaging in the same line of business.

In the U.S., McDonald’s direct competitors include Starbucks, Wendy’s, Burger King, KFC, Pizza Hut, Subway, and Yum Brands, Inc.

Other companies whose product offerings overlap those of McDonald’s include CMG (Chipotle Mexican Grill), Panera Bread Company, and Taco Bell.

Let’s briefly analyze these competitors.


Starbucks happens to be one of MacDonald’s mightiest competitors. With more than 28,000 locationsin over 75 countries, Starbucks is no small player.

The world’s number #1 coffeehouse chain, Starbuck comes immediately after McDonald’s in terms of revenue.


Subway is another worthy competitor. In fact, Subway is the largest restaurantchain globally (in size). Compared to McDonald’s almost 38,000 restaurants, Subway operated more than 43,000 restaurants located in over 100 countries (as of 2017).

Subway has already hit the goal McDonald’s has been striving toward. With Subway, franchisees own and operate 100% of the company’s restaurants. But the company’s sales (Subway’s) have followed a downward trajectory since 2012.

Burger King

With 16,000 locations in more than 100 countries, Burger King is smaller than Subway, Starbucks, and McDonald’s.

However, it’s still a notable competitor. Restaurant Brands International, the owner of Popeyes and Tim Hortons, owns Burger King.


Boasting more than 2,400 locations, Chipotle mainly operates in the U.S, France, Germany, U.K., Canada, and the U.S. The company keeps calling customers’ attention to the quality of its food.

The company uses an effective marketing slogan that goes, “Food with Integrity.” It’s easy to see why the company manages to sell at a higher price point than McDonald’s.


Wendy’s owns about 6,500 restaurants located in the U.S. and 29 other countries.  Some of the company’s restaurants are franchised while others are not. In comparison with McDonald’s, Wendy’s is rather small, but it’s still an important competitor.

Yum Brands, Inc.

Yum is the commercial might behind KFC, Pizza Hut, and Taco Bell. The company rivals Subway in terms of number of locations. The business owns more than 45,000 restaurants spread out across almost 140 countries. And like Subway, nearly every restaurant (97%) is a franchise.

For the most part, these businesses are doing more or less what McDonald’s does. They sell similar products and run similar systems. Besides, they’re deep-pocketed, just like McDonald’s is. Clearly, the company must keep working hard if it desires to keep its competitors where they belong — behind it.

3. Changes in Commodities’ Prices Could Push Up Costs

McDonald’s uses commodities whose production it has little control over. With commodities such as potatoes, an unpredictable factor (e.g. drought) can lead to sudden price increases.

Unfortunately, the company isn’t always in a position to pass on the increased cost to its customers. Luckily, the company is a large client. Negotiating better deals will always be easier for McDonald’s than it is for small, unknown fast-food restaurants.

Do you think we left anything in this McDonald’s SWOT analysis? It’s possible we did. But you certainly can create a similar analysis for your SWOT analysis assignment, can’t you?

McDonald’s SWOT Analysis: Wrapping it all Up

McDonald’s is in the fast-food business. It’s a well-known brand. Most people easily recognize its famous “Golden Arches.” Also, the company is a global business that with an enormous diversified income. In addition, the company’s extremely efficient systems ensure that it keeps its customers happy and coming back.

But the business has two main weaknesses. First, it over relies on semiskilled labor which means employee turnover is a huge problem. Second, it’s hard for the business to run away from its being associated with unhealthy food.

There are some great opportunities McDonald’s can grab, too. Many consumers in foreign countries tend to believe that US-made products are always of superior quality.  Add that to the fact that quite a few countries especially in Africa have relatively high GDP-PPP. There’s potential for growth and expansion in many underserved locations. Also, it’s relatively easy for the company to access low-cost debt. In addition, consistently good dividend payouts have kept investors happy for years. The company can raise additional expansion capital without difficulty.

Finally, there’s need to appreciate the threats McDonald’s faces. The company battles stiff competition from rivals such as Starbucks, Subway, Yum Brands, Inc., Wendy’s, and Chipotle among others.  Aside from that, the company must deal with the fact that preferences are shifting toward healthier food. The business must look for ways to replace the revenue it gets from fast-food sales. Fortunately, McDonald’s is moving fast to incorporate healthy delicacies into its product offerings.

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