Ultimate Guide To Nursing Theories

Ultimate Guide To Nursing Theories

nursing theoriesOver time, tons of theories have been and are being developed. And the medical field has not been left behind. Understanding theories is a major part of the advancement of the discipline. Taking it down the foundation of theories, a theory is a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.

Behind every theory, there has to be a theorist and in most cases, when stating the theory, their names are attached, say, Einstein’s theory of relativity, which is one of the most common theories out there. Nursing theories are no different and have theorists who present a set of ideas intended to explain facts or events that help guide and define nursing care and provide a proper foundation for clinical decision-making.

Metaparadigm of Nursing: Explaining Major Concepts of Nursing Theories

The concept of nursing is an all-around concept that works systematically. To make sense of nursing theories you need to first understand the pillars or rather the main concepts tied to nursing.


This very basic component focuses on the ‘patient’ or rather the receiver of the care and this explores all other people in their life. To better understand the ‘person’, a basic understanding of their social, spiritual and healthcare needs is needed. It is argued that a person is better endowed to manage their health when they have proper personal connections.


The health bit to this focuses on the patients well being, In this case, their well-being is not only tied to their physical and anatomy but also their spiritual, emotional, intellectual and social well-being. All these play an important role in the health of the person.


It has been said, we are as good as what we know which is very much influenced by what surrounds us. This component seeks to express the relationship between a person’s health and how their surrounding can influence their health. The question here is, how can a person’s environment influence their health?


Well, this would all be incomplete without their caregiver, who is the nurse. This concept sees to express the relationship between the patient and the caregiver. The role of the nurse in ensuring the patient achieves the best possible health outcome. It is arguably the key component to all this.

Over years of research, numerous theories have been established and while some are still debatable most of them have been adopted and inculcated in learning. However, despite these theories being different, they all share the metaparadigm of nursing.

Levels of Nursing Theories.

Generally, nursing theories are categorized into three levels

  • Grand nursing theories

These theories are considered to be the most complex as well as the broadest category. It is however applicable in a variety of situations and hence widely accepted.

  • Middle-range nursing theories

Middle-range nursing theories are quite moderate and are a little bit more specific when compared to grand nursing theories. These theories are less complex and thanks to their nature are testable and hence verifiable.

  • Practice level nursing theories

These are the least complex group of theories and have a very narrow scope of focus. Their nature allows them to be used only in specific cases and on specific types of patients. On the upside, since they are derived from the other two levels, they are easily complimented.

Here are a couple of nursing theories that you will encounter in the course of your academic pursuit in nursing. They are quite vast and there is so much more information on each of them individually, however, I will just highlight the basics to them.

Nursing Theories and Theorists

Environmental theory (Florence Nightingale)

nursing theorists
Vintage engraving of Florence Nightingale, 1820 to 13 August 1910, a celebrated English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while serving as a manager of nurses trained by her during the Crimean War, where she organised the tending to wounded soldiers

This is one of the most common nursing theories you will find. Florence Nightingale served as a nurse in the Crimean war and during her time there she made several observations and discovered that due to unsanitary conditions, most soldiers ended up dying from lack of; fresh air, pure water, effective drainage, sunlight and cleanliness rather than they did from wounds.

This formed the basis of her theory and was a game changer which ended up saving many lives back in the day. This theory tends to prioritize the environmental factors, to get the patient back to proper health conditions.

Despite this theory having been fronted in the 19th century its relevance in modern-day society still stands.

Virginia Henderson’s nursing need theory

“The nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength, the will, and the knowledge. But I go on to say that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible.” ~Virginia Henderson

This theory is quite modern and it seeks to promote the importance of increasing the patient’s independence to speed up recovery. Henderson’s theory is both vast and effective and she emphasized the psychological, spiritual, social and physiological components of care.

Patricia Benner’s novice to expert theory

With years of practice comes experience and this is variable since the level of exposure also varies. However, Patricia Benner developed a theory which was pretty much straight forward and it ranked the different levels of nursing into five categories i.e

  1. Novice
  2. Advanced Beginner
  3. Competent
  4. Proficient
  5. Expert: This theory not only takes into consideration the level of experience but also the level of education.
  1. Maternal role of attainment theory (Ramona Mercer): Ramona was a nurse who specialized in maternity and newborn care. Through her various interactions and experience, she realized the importance of bonding and parent-child attachment in a child’s life. She, therefore, created a theory that promotes maternal identity and bonding, however, this theory is not ideal for adoptions.

Ramona gave these four phases in her theory

  • Anticipatory phase- This starts during pregnancy as the mother-to-be makes certain changes in readiness for the baby
  • Formal phase- This involves, learning how to take proper care of the baby in various situations.
  • Informal phase- This is all about adaptation to the motherhood lifestyle and priorities
  • Personal phase- Individually, the maternal role has to be understood and accepted.

King’s theory of goal attainment

Taking this back to patient care plans, we cannot emphasize the importance of having a plan toward an attainable goal. This is exactly what this theory is about. It emphasizes on the importance of a goal-oriented recovery, that sees the nurse and patient setting goals that they both work towards.

This approach has proven to be quite effective as it incorporates the effort of the patient as well and this sets their focus on recovery.

Nursing process theory

Unitary human beings theory

Martha rogers is the name behind this theory and she depicted it as being a combination of nursing as an art and a science. This theory was based on couple of assumptions revolving around a ‘person’

Self-care deficit theory ( Dorothea Orem)

This theory seeks to provide a guideline on how nurses can help their patients can practice self-care and hereby maintain their wellbeing.

  1. Systems theory
  2. Adaptation theory
  3. Comfort theory
  4. Human becoming theory
  5. Human-to-human relationship model
  6. Interpersonal theory
  7. Transcultural nursing

Importance of Nursing Theories

While this may come as a very obvious question, it is a question worth asking when dealing with nursing theories.

Gives basis for future research

When basing research, scholars will need to study already published work so as to avoid replication as well as know what they agree with and what to dispute. Some of these theories have stood the test of time and are still relevant.

As you know, DNP projects aim at translating nursing research into practice. Nursing theories play a critical role in shaping the parameters of nursing care delivery. Therefore, our DNP capstone project writers utilize nursing theories to translate evidence into nursing practice to align with expected outcome.

Provides a foundation for nursing practice

Theories generally provide a proper basis for learning purposes. Every discipline is based on certain ideologies that have been tested and nursing medicine is no different.

It helps nurses understand their role in healthcare

The role of nurses in healthcare is both vital and complex. They have been entrusted with a very important task that ultimately helps preserve human life and this responsibility needs clarity for the proper execution of tasks.

Allows the nursing profession to maintain relevance

Nursing theories act as a guide and every so often they are revisited just to make sure they are dependable. With new information and theories in play, relevance is maintained since they help solve everyday problems. Their adaptability is a key strength.

Promotes education, research and practice

Right from college to the hospital, these theories remain relevant, after all, we practice what we learn. However, during practice, the hands-on experience sheds a whole different light on what you know.

Nursing theories are accepted universally and are vital to the nursing profession. As you consider having a career in nursing, remember you will learn more than just the human anatomy and procedures. The goal here is to help the patients achieve the best health they can in the most effective and efficient way. On top of that, it will be an added advantage if the patient now knows how to take better care of themselves to avoid frequent visits to the hospital.

Since nursing theories shape nursing concepts and play a critical role in patient care delivery. Nursing student will often be required to complete nursing theories assignments. We are the best nursing paper writing service to help with writing nursing assignments on any of the nursing theories

Scholarships for Nursing Students in 2022 & 2023

Scholarships for Nursing Students in 2022 & 2023

It is no longer a surprise that nursing is currently one of the most popular courses to study worldwide. Because of the course’s relevance, the love that nurses have around the world, and the fact that nurses are well paid, the number of students choosing to major in nursing has long increased.

Nursing, according to Wikipedia, is a career in the healthcare industry that focuses on providing care to people so they can achieve, maintain, or regain their optimal health and quality of life.

Need some scholarship to fund your nursing studies? Fortunately, various scholarships are available to support prospective nurses in achieving their goals. From our research, here are a few examples of the different nursing scholarship opportunities available in the US and Canada in 2022/2023.

What Is the Cost of Studying Nursing in the US

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) can cost as much as any other four-year degree. There is a considerable range in the average cost of nursing school. According to U.S. News, the average tuition for a four-year public school was $9,687, while for a four-year private school, it was $35,087.

Some people might choose alternative routes, such as an online Registered Nurse (RN) to BSN program, which can occasionally be less expensive and cost anywhere from $25,000 to $80,000. Although it might seem pricey, the average RN pay in 2019 was $75,330.


Scholarships for Nursing Students Opportunities in the USA 2023

For you, we’ve highlighted the best scholarships for nursing students available in the USA. Several famous universities in the US compete on a worldwide scale. Given this, it is logical to assume that many people who had the option to complete their nursing degrees would opt to enroll in an American university.

Scholarships for Nursing Students in USA in 2023First-Generation Scholarships for Nursing Students (USA)

Students who enroll in college for the first time in their families pave the way for others to follow in their footsteps. By reducing the financial strains related to higher education, these scholarships assist students in creating a new standard for themselves and their families.

The Suder Foundation

Accessible to: Every candidate is a first-generation undergraduate student enrolled full-time. All academic fields, including nursing, are welcome to this program.

Requirements for Applications: Your school must be a participant in the Suder scholarship program.

Terms and Amount Awarded: Scholarships come with a $5,000 annual award and are extendable for an additional three years.

How to Apply: Ask your school’s financial aid office if they participate in the program if you want to learn more about this first-generation award.

Deadline: The deadline for this scholarship varies.

The McKelvey Foundation Scholarship

Accessible to: Seniors in high school who are the first in their family to enroll in college.

Application requirements: All career-focused students are welcome to apply. Students with minimal financial resources who have demonstrated a commitment to and involvement in their communities are given preference.

Terms and Amount Awarded: There are 125 scholarships, each worth $12,000. The scholarships must be used to pay for four-year college tuition in the states where the beneficiaries reside.

How to Apply: Fill out the online application.

Deadline: The deadlines change annually. To learn more, go to the McKelvey website.

Scholarships for Nursing Students with Disabilities in USA

Students with impairments may be unaware of all the nursing school scholarships. The following list of scholarships for high school and undergraduate students with disabilities includes various financing options, though it is not all-inclusive.

ExceptionalNurse.com Scholarships

Accessible to: Full-time applicants or recipients of admission to a college or university program with a verified impairment.

Numerous scholarships are given out. The applicants’ dedication to nursing studies and professional achievement must be evident. The preference is given to undergraduate students. To find out the specific requirements for each scholarship, visit the website.

Terms and Amount Awarded: Any amount between $250 and $500 as a one-time prize.

How to Apply: Applicants must write a 1-2 page essay outlining how they intend to contribute to the nursing field and how their impairment affects their nursing practice. The application process includes a requirement for medical documentation of a handicap. Applications must be mailed in when finished.

Deadline: Every June 1

DisABLEDperson Inc. Scholarship

Accessible to: Students who are enrolled full-time at an American 2- or 4-year institution of higher learning that has earned accreditation. It is also possible to apply if you are a part-time student who cannot attend classes full-time due to a disability.

Application Requirements: Before accessing an application, candidates must register on disABLEDperson.com and join the community. Recipients of awards must present proof of their disabilities.

Terms and Award Amount: Every time competition is held, a $2,000 scholarship is given.

How to Apply: On the website, register and finish the application. Applicants must also write a 1,000-word limit essay in response to the writing prompt.

Deadline: Visit the DisABLEDperson website for details on the yearly deadlines.


Scholarships for Nursing Students That Don’t Require U.S. Citizenship

International students and non-citizen U.S. residents are both eligible for many scholarships. These awards aid in diversifying the nursing workforce by attracting more professionals from various backgrounds.

Gallagher Student Health Careers Scholarship Program

Accessible to: All undergraduates enrolled full-time in a 4-year program at an accredited university and have at least two semesters before graduation.

Requirements: Non-U.S. citizens and international students enrolled in a U.S.-based institution of higher learning are eligible for the award.

Terms and Award Amount: Each year, six scholarships worth $7,500 are given out. The recipients receive their money directly. There are two components to the award distribution. For the fall semester, the first half is given, and for the spring semester, the second.

How to Apply: Download and complete the online application. In addition, candidates must submit a financial aid application and a 500-word essay about their preferred healthcare vocation. Two letters of recommendation are also necessary. By the due date, all paperwork must be mailed and received.

Deadline: Deadlines vary each year; visit their website for more details.


Scholarships for Nursing Students who are Veterans in the US

Veterans interested in a career in nursing can apply for scholarships designed to give them financial compensation for the sacrifices they made for their nation. Veterans’ spouses, children, and parents may all be eligible for some scholarships. Veterans who want to reenter the workforce may benefit significantly from these financial incentives.

VFW’s Sport Clips Help a Hero Scholarship

Accessible to: Members of the National Guard or Reserve who are presently enrolled or accepted in a VA-approved program or school at an accredited post-secondary institution and who have served on active duty, had an honorable discharge, or retired are eligible.

Application Requirements: Candidates must be US citizens and have completed basic and advanced training. Only former service personnel who held an E-5 or lower military level or currently own one are eligible to apply. Additionally, candidates must be in need of money.

Terms and Award Amount: Awards are worth $5,000. The funds must be used for school tuition and fees and sent directly to the institution.

How to Apply: Complete the online application. Additionally, a current FAFSA report needs to be submitted.

Deadline: For the spring scholarship, the deadline is November 15, and for the fall scholarship, April 30.

Army Nurse Corps Association (ANCA) Scholarship

Accessible to: Students who are or have been members of any branch of the U.S. Army and are now enrolled in a baccalaureate, advanced nursing, or nurse anesthesia school, as well as their parents, spouses, and kids.

Application Requirements: Applicants must be American citizens. The recipient is not required to serve in the military because the Army Nurse Corps is not affiliated with the American Army. The U.S. Army’s grant recipients are ineligible to apply.

Amount Awarded and Terms: Award amounts are one-time payments of $3,000.

How to Apply:  Online submission of an application and the necessary supporting documentation. Additional requirements include a personal statement, proof of military service, and letters of recommendation from academic and private sources.

Deadline: Every year, deadlines change. Every fall, the ANCA website updates with the most recent information.


Other scholarships for nursing students in the USA

National Black Nurses Association (NBNA)

Scholarships are available annually to students who are NBNA members or members of the local chapter, are enrolled in an undergraduate nursing school, and still have at least one full year of study left. Awards are worth between $1,000 and $6,000.

NURSE Corps Scholarship Program

Provides money for tuition, fees, and other educational costs to students who are accepted or enrolled in a diploma, associate, baccalaureate, or graduate nursing program in exchange for working at an eligible NURSE Corps location after graduation. Candidates must be citizens of the United States (born or naturalized), nationals, or authorized permanent residents.

Cascade Healthcare Solutions Nurses Make a Difference Scholarship

A prospective nurse presently enrolled in (or accepted for) an undergraduate nursing program will receive a $1,000 grant per year. To apply, you must either be a US citizen or have a current student visa.

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN)

Provide Continuing Professional Development scholarships to support members in acquiring knowledge and abilities outside conventional academic nursing education. A limited number of scholarships will still be offered for particular educational programs.

You can see more scholarships for nursing students offered in the US here.

Opportunities for Scholarships for Nursing Students in Canada 2023

Scholarships for Nursing Students in Canada in2023Nursing programs are less expensive in Canada compared to the United States and the United Kingdom. According to studies, tuition for nursing students in Canada will cost between C$20,000 and C$30,000 per year. Depending on the program and degree of study, this fee will change.

Although most students consider this price high, we can claim that it is still cheaper than Canadian nursing schools’ educational quality and material.

However, numerous nursing scholarships are available to aid students in taking advantage of Canada’s unrivaled educational system.

What Degrees Are There For Nursing In Canada?

Depending on your preferences, nursing schools in Canada offer the following degrees:

  • Diploma
  • Bachelor of Science in Nursing
  • Master of Nursing
  • D. in Nursing

What Do You Require To Study Nursing in Canada?

As mentioned earlier, the requirements will vary depending on your application programs.

However, the following is a list of the standard prerequisites you must meet to apply for nursing schools in Canada:

  • Proof of your ability to speak English (IELTS, Pearson, or TOEFL)
  • Certificate from high school (English, Mathematics, Biology, and Chemistry are the main subjects)
  • A high school average grade of C
  • Letter of recommendation
  • Statement of Intent
  • Writing samples

The school determines any additional requirements.


Top Canadian-Nursing Scholarships For International Students in 2023

Depending on the scholarship, there are different prerequisites for international students who want to apply for nursing scholarships in Canada. These scholarships for nursing students are available in Canada years 2022 and 2023.

Sunshine Behavioral Health Opioid Awareness Scholarship

Open to: Students in the US pursuing a degree in health-related fields are eligible for this scholarship.

Application Requirements: Medical-related courses from approved colleges and universities are required. This scholarship is not institution-specific.

Amount- Awarded: The program’s winner will get a $500 prize. If chosen, you must agree to a talent release and be willing to give a digital photo for the Sunshinebehavioralhealth.com exhibition.

How to apply: Participants are required to turn in an essay on the American opioid problem. When your paper is prepared, email richardf@sunshinebh.com with your contact details included.

Deadline: December 1 Each Year

SGS Dean’s funding for International Students in Canada

Accessible to: Both high-achieving Canadian nationals and international students who wish to pursue a scholarship in Canada may apply for the SGS Dean’s Scholarship.

Application Requirements: It is exclusively accessible to master’s-level nursing students. You will need documentation to show that you have completed your undergraduate degree.

Amount-Awarded: Not specified

How to apply: It depends on the specific international award program, but most applications are online.

Deadline: Varies

Canadian Nurses Foundation Scholarships

Open to: No matter what degree you have, you are eligible to apply for this award.

Requirements: A minimum of three courses must have been completed. You must be enrolled in the program for which you are asking for financing and actively take classes. If you have won a CNF grant for the previous year and are applying in your last semester, you are not eligible.

Amount-Awarded: Over $50,000

How to apply: Their FluidReview website is used to submit applications. Visit their website for additional details.

Deadline: February 13, Each Year


Scholarships For Nursing Students With Disabilities In Canada

There are lots of scholarships available in Canada for people with disabilities to help them succeed as students! You can achieve your post-secondary ambitions with support from these scholarships, ranging from $1,000 to $5,000. Here is our ranking of Canada’s best awards for disabled students!

Emmy Duff Scholarship

This scholarship is open to students who have had cancer treatment or are undergoing it. Emmy Duff, a remarkable young woman and three-time leukemia survivor who passed away at 23 in September 2012, was honored by having it named in her honor. Write a 300–500 word letter detailing your background, aspirations for the future, and reasons for applying for one of the twelve $2000 scholarships.

The Canadian Hearing Society Scholarships

The Canadian Hearing Society provides 20 scholarships yearly to hard of hearing, deaf or both students. Instead of emphasizing academic achievement, this fellowship rewards students who have shown a dedication to improving the lives of Canadians who are Deaf or hard of hearing.

The fact that this scholarship is so transparent is its best feature. You can apply regardless of your post-secondary institution’s location or academic year! Send in your application and a few references to be considered for a $3,000 prize!

NEADS National Student Awards Program

For Canadian college students with impairments, NEADS offers annual scholarships. You qualify if you have proven your capacity for self-advocacy, academic discipline, and civic engagement. Each year, there are different amounts of awards. They range from $1000 to $5000. To apply, visit their website.


Canadian Scholarships Specific for Nursing Students Who Live in Canada

Butler-Hushagen Health Education Fund

Check out this award if you live in Canada’s frozen north and are pursuing a career in medicine or a health-related job like nursing. To apply, you must enroll in or begin a healthcare degree or diploma program.

Additionally, you’ll need to compose a brief essay covering the following subjects:

  • How you have proven that you have the academic skills necessary to succeed in your chosen field.
  • Your community’s involvement and contributions in the past and now.
  • How receiving the scholarship will help the north.

Amount-Awarded: $1000

Deadline: May 15 every year

You can apply here.

Nurse Practitioner Bursary

This prize is completely non-repayable unless you promise to relocate to and work in northern Alberta after graduation. However, you must have lived in Alberta for at least a year before beginning your degree.

You can pledge to live and work in a particular area or town in northern Alberta that needs the assistance of a qualified nurse like you to get a grant of $18,000 instead of $9,000!

Amount: At least $9000

Deadline: April 30

Apply here

Elaine (Sweet) Whitford Scholarship Fund

This scholarship is available to Northwest Territories residents who have lived there for at least two years and want to pursue careers in nursing or social work.

You must submit a brief essay explaining your need for assistance and information on your community involvement, professional growth, dedication to nursing, and the financial necessity to be considered.

Amount Awarded: $1000

Application Deadline: May 15


De Beers Group Scholarships for Canadian Women

Four Canadian women (or permanent residents!) who are beginning their first year of an undergraduate STEM degree will receive funding thanks to a partnership between The De Beers Group and the UN Women HeForShe Thematic Champion Initiative.

Women from distant communities in Northern Ontario, Southern Alberta, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, as well as women of Indigenous ancestry, will be given preference.

Amount to be awarded: $2,175

Application Deadline: June 1


Other scholarships for nursing students in Canada 2022/2023

❖   Parker B. Francis Fellowship 2022

International students can apply for the Parker B. Francis Fellowship 2022, a total funding fellowship provided by Parker B. Francis. All U.S. and Canadian citizens are eligible for this scholarship.

This Ph.D. grant may be applied to clinical, laboratory, translational pulmonary, critical care, or sleep medicine studies.

Deadline: 10 October

❖   Undergraduate In-Course Bursary Program 2022

Undergraduate In-Course Bursary Program 2022 is a Partial Funding international grant made available to international students by Concordia University, Canada. Students who qualify for this grant include: open to all nationalities.

This undergraduate or bachelor’s degree scholarship is available for any of the university’s courses.

You can get the scholarship application form here.

Deadline: 27 May

Visit this page to learn more about nursing scholarships available in Canada.


Frequently Asked Questions About Canadian and American Scholarships for Nurses

●    Is there any nursing scholarship?

Yes! International students can study nursing in the US and Canada with the help of a variety of nursing scholarships. All you require is the proper knowledge, which this article offers.

●    Can a Canadian get a Scholarship to an American University?

Yes! After finishing high school, hundreds of Canadian students travel abroad to complete their degrees. Due to the numerous chances these two systems provide, many students choose to continue their education in the US, the UK, or occasionally even the EU.

●    How Can I Get Full Scholarships in Canada?

The nursing scholarships above can help you pay for your studies at Canadian nursing schools. All you have to do is adhere to the detailed procedure outlined in this article.

  • Are there scholarships for DNP students in US and Canada

Yes. It is a fact of life that funding postgraduate studies is very expensive. Getting financial aid is a stress free path to accomplishing your educational goals. It is every student dream to be considered for a grant, scholarship or financial aid for DNP studies. However, most DNP students take student loans and federal aids to finance their nursing studies. Our list below, though not exhaustive provide some of the best DNP scholarships available in the USA for year 2023.

  1. There are scholarships specifically for DNP students such as American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) Scholarships that offers financial support to students who wish to excel in advanced nursing practice. You should be on the lookout for the next DNP funding cycle for 2023  since the funding cycle 2022 has already closed.
  2. Our DNP tutoring service offers grants of $1000 to US DNP student interested in advanced nursing practice in areas of mental health, aging, palliative care and community and primary care. Additionally, our DNP statistics help service will provide you with free statistical consultation for DNP data.
  3. John Hopkins University offers $45000 award through its DNP Advanced Practice Scholarship dubbed $45,000 AREAS OF EXPERTISE SCHOLARSHIP. It is designed to support nursing students who will advance the field of nursing. “Open to students interested in one of the following Johns Hopkins School of Nursing Areas of Expertise; Aging Care; Palliative Care and Symptom Management, or Community and Primary Care, Excellence Scholars may enroll in any of Johns Hopkins School of Nursing DNP Advanced Practice tracks. Scholarship provides support for up to six scholars annually”. Learn more about the scholarship here

However, we encourage students undertaking DNP studies to make inquiries or make application for scholarships for doctorate students. Since some of these scholarships do not include DNP prepared nursing professionals. See more scholarship and grant opportunities for DNP students by clicking here


These scholarships for nursing students in Canada and the United States are one method to study nursing for free. Don’t give up if securing scholarships proves to be so difficult. Even with healthcare certificates, you can still pursue a career in medicine. You might enroll in one of the many free and short online courses to help you reach your objective.