9 Tips To Ace your DNP Project Oral Defense

Oral defense is a near final step in your pursuit of DNP degree journey. It is less than one hour activity that determines if you partially fulfill the requirements to earn the coveted DNP degree. It offers you unique platform to demonstrate ability to synthesize, translate and apply clinical knowledge into practice, which are vital skills in DNP practice. In your DNP project oral defense you will be required to show mastery in your chosen research topic, deep understanding of the chosen clinical nursing scope and effectively communicate the findings and patient outcomes to the DNP committee.

Key DNP Project Oral Defense Expectation

Is this your first time to do an oral defense? Then you might be wondering what the chair and DNP committee expects from me during the defense. Based on my prior experience as a DNP student your final oral defense should focus on chapter 4 (results and findings) and chapter 5(Discussion, Conclusion, recommendation and future research). Be able to connect the results and findings to your research questions and explain how your results answer the research questions and hypothesis and support your conclusion and recommendations.


However, if you are at proposal stage, your defense should address chapter 1 (Introduction), chapter 2 (literature review) and chapter 3 (research methodology). In this case, your defense should able to show how your DNP research will fill the existing research gap and enhance patient care outcomes.

Tips To Ace your DNP Project Oral Defense

You’ve probably been to a crass DNP viva voce which made you cringe. Avoid embarrassing yourself before the committee by learning these actionable tips to ace through DNP oral defense.


It’s two short hours before the curtain falls on a tedious study program littered with tomes of clinical books and a nerve-racking DNP project. Make the years of midnight reading count when you take to the podium.


Also See: Excellent Tips to Master the Art of Capstone Paper Writing

Tip #1: Open the DNP Project Oral Defense With a Compelling Statement.

Choose an opening statement that grabs the attention of every professor in the room. Perch in their spotlight, and don’t budge until they are convinced you know your stuff. The following is a sample template of a memorable expository.


“Welcome to the DNP project defense on ( title of your capstone paper ) this morning / afternoon. On the podium is ( your full name ) If you ask around college, they’ll also tell you ( a brief description of your academic background and occupation ) Thank you for attending, and may we please begin.”


Tip #2: Approach the Mic With a Structured Format

After earning the ear of your audience, clearly explain the logic behind your research statement choice. Ponder on the DNP project’s significance to clinical practice and dive deep into the theoretical framework of your study. Whet the appetites of the audience with solid justification to your methodology and the extent of your findings.


Impress the DNP oral defense committee with a deliberate show of deep, contextual understanding of the research question. Roll out the key DNP project issues in a logical, concise, and fluid narration.


Remember This!

Before the dreaded Q&A session, settle any anticipated questions by structuring your presentation around the question areas.

Tip #3:  Know Your Research Inside Out

Know your DNP capstone paper by rote. Be vigilant of any new developments in your area of clinical research and be sure to highlight it. The last thing a good ole’ professor wants is listening to a discordant DNP oral defense from what they read in your final project paper!


In as much as you are defending your DNP research, subtly communicate a willingness to learn and improve. It’s a hint to a great DNP practitioner in the future.

Ensure you are conversant with every detail of your research methodology and be prepared to explain every aspect. This include: research design, research methods, data collection instruments, data analysis tools, ethical considerations and limitations.

Keep in mind that this is an examination, albeit oral.

Tip #4: Simulate a DNP Oral Defense and Prepare Essential Materials

Create a mock DNP oral defense with your peers and project team supervisor. Let them cosplay the committee as you make your presentation. A simulation helps you to sharpen public speaking skills, improve time management, and to build confidence in readiness for the real deal.


Remember that cliché about 1000 words for a single visual? Make your DNP oral defense a visually-engaging event. My advice is to focus your slides on methodology, key findings, and recommendations segments of your research.


Practice spoken and non-verbal communication skills, solicit objective criticism, and incorporate it in your final presentation. Make your DNP oral defense visually engaging. Test every piece of equipment you’ll need before the big day!

Here are some of the common DNP project oral defense questions you can anticipate from your panel. Practice answering them today

  1. Take us through the research design of your study?
  2. Give us a step by step approach of your research methodology?
  3. Why did you choose the stated methodology for your study?
  4. Are there discrepancies between your findings and previous researches?
  5. What limitations did you have during your research and how did you overcome them?
  6. What was your sample size and how did you arrive at your sample size?
  7. Is your research generalizable? And if not why?
  8. Walk us through the data collection and analysis phases?
  9. Discuss the ethical considerations in your research and how you overcame them?
  10. Do you think your research has clinical implications in nursing practice?
  11. How do you intend to disseminate your findings to other nurses?
  12. Recommend future research areas based on your research findings
  13. Identify key stakeholders who can benefit from your research besides patients

Tip #5: Focus on The Audience

Know your audience, and factor them in the DNP oral defense. The whole sense of the occasion is to convince them, anyways. When a particular professor crowds you, you’ll know how to answer them in short, laser-like answers and in the most confident way.


Maintain eye contact and use formal body language. A little stage fright is normal, and a bead of cold sweat means you’re doing fine already. Engage the professors throughout the DNP oral defense without ceding control.


Overall, focus on engaging the audience. Demonstrate confidence and an ability to think critically throughout the DNP oral defense.

Tip #6: Get Ready for Questions

If you sneak in on a public DNP oral defense in your discipline, you’ll soak in lots of expected (and obvious) questions. Some supervisors will hint at pertinent questions for your specific DNP oral defense. I advise you to subtly solicit for the questions from your instructors.


Contextual questions devour  the hourglass. They also present unexpected, discomforting moments during the oral defense. Get ready for them.


Sample this calm response when answering a contextual DNP oral defense question:

“ I’m not sure the project concerned itself with your question, but this study led me to Dr. A.N Other.  Based on their evidence, I would confidently conclude….”

Tip #7: Manage Time Effectively

Practice ensures that you deliver the DNP oral defense within the allocated time. Too little time on the podium means under-preparation. Stretching allocated time is an indicator of one too many digressions.


Make your 1-or-2 hours of fame count. Set aside enough minutes in your DNP oral defense schedule for the Q&A session. A good simulation and practice will effectively sort this out.

Tip # 8: Articulate the Significance of Your DNP Project

It’s why you are here in the first place – to publicly showcase the impact of your research to real-world clinical practice. Demonstrate the impact of your project outcomes on shaping the future of nursing, while recognizing and addressing the encountered limitations. Use the DNP oral defense as a platform to highlight the symbolic importance of your expertise.

Tip #9 : Dress, Speak, and Behave Formal

A DNP oral defense is a formal event. Appear in formal wear, speak formal, and use formal non-verbal communication. Nursing practice is best carried out in formal etiquette.


While addressing the never-lacking DNP oral defense inquisitors, remain calm. Listen carefully to their questions. Ask for clarification where necessary. Respond honestly and if possible, cite examples from the particular interrogator’s research.

Wrap Up

Acing the DNP oral defense requires meticulous planning and deliberate preparation for a winning presentation. Embrace objective feedback, stay composed, and highlight your contributions.

Approach your DNP project oral defense as an opportunity to shine. Always provide clear examples to support your answers and amplify your points. Stay calm and demonstrate mastery of your topic.

Best of luck on the podium!

Mastering Research Methodologies for DNP Projects

A staggering majority of nursing students struggle with mastering research methodologies for DNP projects. Arriving at a project  design that covers your main objectives requires more than just clinical expertise, as you’ll see in this article.

How can you leverage a robust research strategy to impact patient care in the real world?

We will assess the validity, quality, and reliability of a winning methodology and ensure your choice aligns with the research question.


Next, we will evaluate the chosen research method to identify any weaknesses, strengths, ethical limitations, and their impact on your findings and conclusions.


Tip: Seek feedback from your comrades, supervisors, or nursing authorities to improve your choice of research methodology.


In this article, I’ll walk you through three broad categories of research methodologies. I’ll show you how to pick an appropriate approach for your project, and we will discuss ethical considerations for a DNP research.


I’ll also offer exclusive insights on overcoming challenges in your study and highlight ways to carry out a successful DNP project.



Our experts can assist you with a matching research methodology to transform your vision into impactful healthcare solutions. Click here.

Understanding DNP Project Research

DNP Project Versus Traditional Research

Many people ask me whether DNP projects are similar to traditional research. My answer is no.


According to a publication by the Western Carolina University, a PhD research project/ dissertation is focused on creating new, generalizable knowledge within the scope and practice of original research.  A DNP project is focused on using evidence/ research to address health care problems. Outcomes from DNP projects are transferable but are not considered generalizable.


It is, therefore, vital to make an informed choice of methodology to answer your DNP research question in a clear, credible, and ethical way.

The Scope of DNP Projects

At its core, a DNP project is a supervised, high-level problem-solving process. A unique methodology helps you evaluate the present situation, identify problems, and use evidence to develop a sustainable solution that  impacts patient care and outcomes.

DNP Project Components

You’ll be expected to follow a structured process in developing, implementing, and disseminating the findings from an evidence-based DNP research methodology.


Be ready to continuously work in a team throughout the DNP project.  Also, keep an uninterrupted contact with the project’s teammates. Share every development in your research with

the team leader.


Don’t do things on impulse. Outline a contractual timeline with the DNP project team. Lay down deadlines for important phases of the project.


Once the DNP project outline and research methodologies have been approved by the institution, it is now time to start off with your investigations.


See also “Excellent Tips to Master the Art of Capstone Paper Writing”

Expectations of a DNP Project

The main focus of your DNP project is to draw recommendations which drive impactful change in healthcare, either directly or indirectly. A well-thought research methodology charts a path for investigating and implementing better quality, ethical, and sustainable patient care practice in the real world.

Practical Application of DNP Research

Worthwhile DNP research develops knowledge about health. Choose a methodology that promotes the health of patients and persons living with disabilities.


Winning DNP research methodologies aim at adding value to daily nursing activities in a bid to improve the quality of healthcare services.

Impacts of Research Methodology on Project Outcomes

An unreliable DNP research method produces unreliable results. Consequently, the value of your analyzed findings is adulterated. Choose a method that exhaustively covers your approved research question in an ethical process.

Contribution of Methodology to Evidence-Based Practice

For every DNP project, there is a considerable amount of actual and potential wastage in research. A comprehensive, evidence-based design ensures worthwhile and valuable research outcomes.


In this section, I’ll discuss evidence-based research methodology approaches that lead to better nursing practice.


Do you need help to formulate a working research methodology for your DNP project? Click here.


Review prior research to inform your DNP question. Work with a design that wholesomely answer your project statement. A dedicated methodology responds to the study in a valid, efficient, verifiable, and accessible manner.


Evidence-based research methodologies minimize the chances of unnecessary and irrelevant DNP projects that are unscientific, wasteful, and unethical.

Key Research Methodologies for DNP Projects

Explore practical DNP research methodologies for projects in your field by reading intensively. An extensive review of approaches in other disciplines will equip you with precious knowledge of  requisite design tools.

Types of Research Methodologies

Clinical research designs fall into four broad categories: quantitative research, qualitative methodologies, mixed-method approach, and holistic (interdisciplinary) methods.

Quantitative Research Methods

Quantitative DNP research methodology focuses on measuring variables using a numerical system. Obtained data is then measured using any of a variety of statistical models.


There are two ways to measure quantitative statistics for your DNP research:

  • Descriptive Statistics (a snapshot of the data’s features which calculates measures like mean, mode, and the median)
  • Inferential Statistics (makes informed inferences about what the clinical data mean.)


Quantitative research methods report cause-effect relationships and associations among the studied variables. You’ll focus on gathering and analyzing numerical data in order to understand and explain clinical phenomena.


The process can take the form of a survey, a descriptive, an experiential, a correlational, or a causal-comparative style.


On the surface, this strategy looks similar to true experiments.

Design Considerations

  • Descriptive Research.
  • Correlational Research.
  • Quasi-experimental (Causal-Comparative) Research Design.
  • Survey Research.

How to Collect Quantitative Research Data

You can use any (or a custom combination) of the following methods to collect quantitative data for your DNP project:

  1. Controlled observations
  2. Surveys (online surveys, telephone interviews, questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, polls)
  3. Longitudinal studies and experiments.


Note: Surveys are the most common because they’re  simple, effective, and return the highest completion rates. They can be deployed both online and offline to reach a broad spectrum of participants.

Statistical Analysis Techniques

Based on your DNP project objectives and design, you can use any of the following analysis tools to process quantitative data.

  • Paired-samples T Test
  • Fisher’s Exact Test
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, or
  • Chi-Squared (X²) Test
  • SPSS, Stata, SAS, and R, Python, MATLAB, JMP, MS Excel (software)

Qualitative Research Methods

If you intend to immerse yourself in the perspectives, stories, behaviors, and the feelings of your DNP research participants, I recommend a qualitative research methodology.


Qualitative research methodologies are known for deeper, more detailed, and holistic understanding of the DNP project question. They help you understand the participant’s patterns of health behaviors and their illness experiences.


As a DNP student, this methodology makes it easier to design clinical interventions and to develop substantive healthcare theories. You’ll generate rich data through qualitative descriptions and the insightful patient context.

Approaches and Methodologies

Examples of qualitative methods employed in nursing research include:

  • Grounded Theory
  • Phenomenology
  • Case Study
  • Ethnography, and
  • Qualitative Description


Each of the approaches above has inherent assumptions and purposes. Choose a method(s) based on how closely they answer your DNP research question.


Wise Choice: Grounded theory, phenomenology and ethnography are three most common approaches used in DNP research.


A historical study is the ideal choice for studies that involve extensive examination of the past (people, events and documents.) Contact our expert researchers for more info. Click here

Data Gathering Techniques

There are a variety of qualitative data collection methods you can use in your DNP research. They include observations, textual or visual analysis (books and videos), and individual or group interviews.


The most common methods of qualitative data collection for healthcare research are focus groups and interviews.

Data Analysis Methods

For qualitative DNP research data analysis, I highly recommend the Chi-Squared (X²) Tests due to their high level of objectivity. Software such as QDA Miner, Intellectual Statistics, MS Excel, and SPSS are easy-to-use analysis tools.


Other methods you can use to analyze qualitative DNP research data include:

  • Coding (labeling and organizing data to identify different themes and the relationships between them)
  • Content analysis
  • Narrative analysis.
  • Discourse analysis.
  • Thematic analysis.
  • Grounded Theory, or
  • Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)

Mixed-method Approach

To substantively answer your DNP research question, use a blended research methodology. The results will yield multiple ways to overcome your chosen research problem.


Individually, qualitative and quantitative methodologies give answers to different aspects of your DNP research statement. When you combine them, they deliver deeper, more fulfilling, and rewarding results.


Overly, quantitative data is better at answering questions like ‘What is the effect?’  Qualitative research methodologies, on the other hand, explain how and why you got those results. Use a blend of the two approaches in the formative and summative stages of your DNP project.


The benefits of using a mixed research methodology include:

  1. You’ll balance out the limitations of an individual method.
  2. Provides a wide-angle view, leading to stronger evidence and more confidence in your DNP research findings.
  3. A mixed approach yields granular results compared to individual methodologies.


It is not all rosy to use a mixed method, though. First, this approach is complex to implement. Secondly, it is resource-intensive compared to a single methodology.


Make the Right Methodology Choice ! Depending on your DNP research statement, using a blend of quantitative and qualitative components is the most appropriate formula.

Interdisciplinary (Holistic) Approach

This DNP research methodology travels beyond the boundaries of a single discipline. The intention is to interlink different aspects of your study in brewing a composite result for your project.


A holistic methodology encourages collaboration between experts from diverse fields in the nursing profession, all working in sync. The result is an exhaustive solution to the DNP question drawn from diverse schools of thought.


According to Allen F. Repko, an educator and author on interdisciplinary research methods, this is a heuristic (individually discovering information), iterative (repetitive), and reflexive (looking back to eliminate bias) approach.


Learning Point: The holistic process includes specifying a problem or question, deciding on disciplines, conducting research, and synthesizing, or coherently blending and organizing, the information.


Advantages of this research method are:

  • It reaches a larger audience
  • Holistic research can inspire new trains of thought and questioning
  • Motivates DNP students and helps build their critical thinking skills.


See also “Excellent Tips to Master the Art of Capstone Paper Writing


Do not let the choice of a research methodology customized for your DNP project stall you. Contact us!

Incorporating Patient Perspectives

I know you’re thinking ‘Why is PPIE important in DNP project research?’


Well, PPIE involves patients and the public in DNP research decisions. What we do, how we interpret, and how we communicate our analysis are all guided by the patient.


PPIE ensures that DNP research is done in accordance with the ethical principle of ‘nothing about us, without us’. Your clinical expertise, combined with the best available scientific evidence, lets you provide patients with the options they need.


“Patients can’t have a preference if they aren’t given a choice, and they can’t make that choice if they aren’t presented with all options.”

Tailoring Research Methodologies to DNP Projects

Choose a research design unique to the DNP project statement. Take time to prioritize the desired implications of your research methodology on the final results.


You can settle on a combination of methodologies with the most satisfying answers to your study question and work with it.

Considerations for Selecting an Appropriate Methodology

Choose a DNP research design that matches your research question.


As seen earlier, different approaches have different strengths and limitations. My advice is to stick with a blend that balances out individual methodology weaknesses.


Example: If you’re researching the experiences or perceptions of a phenomenon, opt for a qualitative design such as an ethnographic study. When testing a hypothesis or measuring the effect of an intervention, choose a quantitative design such as a randomized controlled trial. A mixed-method research is good for integrating or comparing different types of research question data.

Aligning Methodologies with Project Goals and Objectives

Before arriving at a research methodology, align it with the study question. This simple trick ensures coherence and consistency between your DNP research objectives and the approach used to achieve them.


By aligning your research statement with the design, every DNP project team member becomes more efficient and effective during the research process. In return, your findings will be more accurate and reliable.


A clear research outline only comes about if your DNP research methodology tallies with your project question. Different research methodologies use specific ways of collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.


Your peers don’t know this yet: matching a DNP research question with an appropriate methodology promotes replicability and comparability. Beat them all at accumulation of knowledge, validation of research findings, and advancement of the nursing field as a whole with this insight!


Did You Know? By aligning the DNP research statement with a good design, you can tailor data collection instruments, sampling techniques, and statistical analyses to address the research question effectively.


DNP research statements that snugly fit in your choice methodology improves the coherence of your capstone paper. Your nursing instructor is looking for a connection between the project question, the objectives, and the underlying theoretical framework in a flowing final paper.

Tips for Selecting the Most Suitable Methodology Based on Project Goals

  • Continuous learning and professional development.
  • Engaging in collaborative research opportunities.
  • Seeking guidance from experienced DNP researchers.

Overcoming Challenges in DNP Project Research

All DNP projects face a myriad of challenges in planning, during implementation, and at the summative evaluation stages. The severity and solutions to the hurdles discussed below are unique to individual DNP researchers.

Common Obstacles in Healthcare Research

  • Challenges with Planning.

These can be effectively eliminated by drawing project timelines, creating roadmaps, and setting clear goals.

  • Implementation Obstacles.

Easily addressed by clinical-academic mentor support programs and/ or toolkits.

  • Evaluation Strategies.

They include appraisal tools, evaluation techniques, and data mining.

  • Sample selection (should be top on the list for many, I know!)
  • Resources (time, human resources, financial, and infrastructural.)


Strategies for Diverse and Inclusive Participant Recruitment

Manage the challenges specific to your DNP project through:

  • Rigorous planning and protocol development
  • Continuous design reflection and adaptation
  • Using digital technologies and a blend of methodologies for data collection and analysis.

It’s important to understand the role of mentorship in guiding your clinical research

Ethical Considerations for DNP Research

Every clinical research operates within a set of principles that guide its research designs and practices.


Your main concerns for the DNP research design are:

  1. Voluntary subject participation
  2. Informed consent for all participants.
  3. Research respondent anonymity
  4. Confidentiality
  5. Least or zero potential for harm
  6. Communication of results.


Very Important: The ICNE insists on five ethical principles of international nursing research: respect for persons, beneficence, justice, respect for community, and contextual caring.


Some ethical methodology principles such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of research subjects, voluntary participation, and protection from harm apply across all types of research.


There are hundreds of  ethical restrictions for nursing research designs. However, these five ethical principles are considered foundational:

  1. Respect for autonomy (self-determination)
  2. Beneficence (do good)
  3. Nonmaleficence (do no harm)
  4. Justice (fairness), and
  5. Fidelity (keep promises) and veracity (tell the truth).


How, then, do you get the institution to approve your DNP research methodology in line with their ethical priorities?


First, ensure your approach clearly communicates potential benefits and risks of participating. Secondly, inform your supervisor and participants how long the DNP research will take. Third, give all your contact information and those of the supervisor/ sponsor to the subjects.


Lastly, reiterate the participant’s right to withdraw from your DNP project at any time without retribution.


Ethical norms in DNP research methodologies promote the core aims of study: knowledge, avoidance of error, and truth.


Remember: Ethical DNP research prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, plagiarizing, or misrepresenting findings promotes truth and significantly minimizes clinical study errors.

Insights in Practical Application of DNP Research Methodologies

Before you zero in on a research methodology for your DNP project, answer the following questions.


Does the chosen methodology conform to current healthcare trends? Can you use integrated technology for data collection and analysis? Is the approach community-engaging, and what are its implications for the future of DNP research?


Things to Ponder: Your DNP research methodology should accommodate the use of big data and analytics. Look out for emerging methodologies and software in nursing research. Keep an updated list of ethical considerations in clinical projects.

Parting Shot

I urge you to sharpen your research skills by attending workshops and signing up for short courses on DNP project methods. Grab mentorship opportunities for hands-on experience in DNP project approaches. Constantly consult experts. Review clinical research methods and ethics with an aim to use lesser-known designs.


The world of DNP research methodologies is evolving fast. Invest in literacy of digital tools to enhance your methodology and to produce results that meaningfully contribute to healthcare.

Call to Action

Share experiences and insights you learned in this article with your DNP project team members. Don’t drop the ball on continuous learning, self-evaluation, and improvement. Embrace diverse methodologies and invest in research skills.


Are you having second thoughts on what research methodology you should use for your DNP project after reading this article? Let us give you a helping hand!

Click here.

CIPS Practitioner Corporate Award Assignment Example

CIPS Practitioner Corporate Award Assignment Example

Are you a CIPS student struggling to complete work-based assignment or practitioner corporate award assignment?  You can hire our CIPS assignment writers for assistance at affordable rate. Alternatively, you can refer to our CIPS practitioner corporate award assignment example to guide you in completing the assignment.

CIPS practitioner corporate award marks the first step to attainment of full membership of the Chartered Institute of Procurement & Supply. The award is equivalent to CIPS level 4 and eligible to public sector employees engaged with procurement at operational level.

The assignment submission involves writing an integrative assignment of 5000words based on your organization. Students are required to use demonstrate working knowledge, research and synthesis of four core modules that include: managing contracts relationship, negotiation and contracting, sourcing essentials in procurement and supply and business needs in procurement.

This assessment tests the learning outcomes and module content of the following Modules:

  • Driving value through procurement and supply
  • Managing expenditures
  • Developing contracts
  • Sourcing essentials
  • Negotiation in procurement and supply

Practitioner Corporate Award Assignment Example

Negotiating and contracting assignment example


Select a category of spend from your organisation. Develop and discuss a plan using the knowledge gained from this programme which could form the basis of a formal commercial negotiation. Your assignment should include an explanation of the key facts, data and approaches that you will use in the negotiation.

Remember, the negotiation does not have to be just about price.  Other considerations could include quality, delivery schedules, timing and amendments/variations etc.

Practitioner corporate award assignment: negotiation and contracting assignment solution example

Executive Summary

Procurement is a process that encompasses selection of vendors, establishing terms of payment, strategic vetting contract negotiation, and actual purchase of products. It deals with acquiring what is essential for the organization; procurement is therefore part of every firm. Concepts of procurement have been applied in supply and procurement negotiations at Sidra Hospital. It is vital to understand the background of the supplier and carry out evaluation of stakeholder as done in this paper. Mendelow’s matrix, PESTLE, SWOT and Porter’s five forces are all important and therefore they should be put into consideration in supply and procurement negotiations because they provide insights during negotiation.

One ultimate procurement goal is to align procurement function with the corporate strategy. The aim of procurement is to successfully enable an organization to purchase products and services. It is therefore paramount to follow correct procedures and incorporate the right stakeholders so as to enable a successful negotiation.


In current procurement practice tactical opportunities and opportunism for short-term financial planning are more commonplace than most dare to acknowledge (Hoezen, 2012). Many projects exhibit minimal input to defining their needs and translating these to functional requirements. They rather haste to move on to latter stages of the building process based on a seemingly transparent image of the costs and time line of the project. Inspired by transaction costs economics (Williamson, 1998), procurement processes are still considered as predominantly legalprocesses that are required before starting a project. This is often translated by the actors into a process in which the legal terms prevail over the social process of deciding on the right firm to establish a collaborative relation or the best proposal for constructing infrastructure (Volker, 2010).

Nevertheless, both the legal and social aspects of collaboration are critical for project success. In order to be able to trust each other it is critical for supplying contractors to understand the client’s initial motivation to invest time and money in design, and for clients to understand the contractor (Cuff, 1996). In other words, both parties need to make sense of each other to cross organizational borders (Pemsel&Widén, 2011) because once they start collaborating formal and informal communication mechanisms will develop (de Blois,
Herazo-Cueto, Latunova, &Lizarralde, 2011). Hence it is argued that developing trust, a common language and an understanding of all parties’ requirements should be critical in the procurement phase, to ensure maximum disclosure and allow for the identification of areas of deficiency within the team as a whole (Brown, 2001). Especially in case of integrated contracts in which several phases of the construction process are included in the deal, parties are condemned to collaborate for an extensive period of time. It is thus imperative that partners are able to develop a shared aim of the project before this relationship is made official in a legal document. Front-end project management thus becomes crucial for project success (Morris, 2009).

Purpose of the Research

This research aims at carrying out procurement of IVF Embroyscope product for Sidra Hospital in Qatar. The research aims at meeting the purpose of procurement, that is, to help Sidra Hospital to select a vendor, negotiate contract and purchase IVF Embroyscope product. In addition, this research seeks to investigate some of the factors that affect supply and procurement negotiation and what should be considered before coming up with a procurement strategy. Therefore, this research provides process and procedures that should be followed throughout the process of supply and procurement negotiation.

Sense-making as a Basis for Project Success

According to Ring and van de Ven (1994), organizations focus on bargaining (formal processes) and sense-making (informal processes) during negotiations. By negotiation parties develop joint expectations about their motivations, possible investments and perceived uncertainties. To a certain extent they also get to know and understand each other. By information confinement, by turning tacit knowledge into words and schemas, by sharing knowledge, assumptions and mental models, and by reducing the impact of biases, parties grow and create meaning of the transaction, the context of the transaction, and the value of it to the other party and to oneself. This is confirmed by research of Vlaar, Van den Bosch, and Volberda (2006), who found that whilst parties try to come to a consensus about contract terms, their attention gets focused, they are forced to articulate, deliberate and reflect on their individual ideas, they interact and they reduce biases, judgment errors, incompleteness and inconsistency. Vlaar et al. (2006) also state that the identified mechanisms in the bargaining processes help in making sense of the inter-organizational relationship and of its context. Organizationalsense-making is a social process during which members of an organization interpret their environment in and through interactions with others, thus constructing observations that allow them to comprehend the world and to act collectively (e.g. Isabella, 1990; Weick, 1995).

Organization’s Background and Selected Product Information

Sidra Medicine is a high-tech facility that provides a world-class care; this is a medical facility that helps in building scientific expertise and resources of Qatar. The hospital facility has clearly stated vision and mission statements: Basically, it is not only an advancing healthcare in Qatar but also it is an advancing healthcare in the entire world. The vision of Sidra Medicine is to be a beacon of exceptional care, learning and discovery and to be a top academic medical center around the world. The mission of the hospital is to provide women and children with the best healthcare services in an ultra-modern innovative facility that has been objectively designed to promote healing. The Hospital facility collaborates with leading research institutions and academic partners as well as the health sector of Qatar in training students and staff. The targeted product for procurement is the Time-lapse incubator for IVF equipment. The “five rights” include considering patient situation; collection of cues; information processing; problem identification; establishing of goals; taking actions; outcome evaluation and reflection on process.

Embroyscope is a high-tech device used during incubation period in IVF laboratory between fertilization and implantation period. Through this high-tech device, the infertility specialists are able to monitor the process through which fertilized eggs operate throughout without moving them away from the incubator. With this technology the risk of anything going wring is minimized to a great extent and doctors and patients are very informed on the process of embryo development (Freour et al., 2012). It is a process and technology that can improve the chance of some patients to carry a pregnancy term.

Stakeholder Evaluations

Sidra Hospital is a private hospital and some of its major stakeholders include senior management; managers and staff. Stakeholders must be engaged in any negotiation because this enables them to have an idea of what the negotiation is all about and make contributions on the way to take. The feedback from stakeholders is a valuable source of information that can be employed in improving the design of the project and the outcomes, and help Sidra Hospital to identify and consequently control external risks. Stakeholder engagement ensures that changes are communicated and understood and potential problems are addressed.

Successful negotiations in procurement are founded on a delicate balance to protect information of the stakeholder while gathering sufficient information and intelligence on positions and priorities of vendors. One guiding factor in negotiations is the objective of the stakeholder. The presence of stakeholders improves negotiations with vendors because their objectives give the procurement manager a basis of negotiation; stakeholders simply clarify what is desirable and what is essential and this is the basis of negotiation.

Background of Key Stakeholder

Stakeholder background helps in determine the type of the stakeholder that should be expected in the negation. Customers form a key stakeholder in Sidra Hospital because they influence the decisions made. The management must consider customers before coming up with any decision that involves them because these are the main clients of the hospital. The stakeholder (customer) need better services hence the need of IVF Embroyscope product. The key stakeholder for Sidra Hospital is mainly the people of Qatar most especially those who stay in Doha.

Background of the Supplier

The supplier of IVF Embroyscope product is Vetrolife. Although there is high competition, Vetrolife is the leading manufacturing company and a leading innovator of equipment of high quality such as ART workstations, long –term embryo incubators; time-lapse incubator and many other medical equipment and advanced technologies that meet the ever bulging demand of IVF industry.

Preparation for negotiation with research and contracts

Before engaging in negotiations, the involved parties must understand and prepare so as to meet their targeted goals. A good negotiation plan is bred from a good strategy. Preparation for negation should be thoroughly be done and the preparation process should begin even before meeting the vendor. Some of pre-negotiation steps that should be done before meeting the vendor include gathering the relevant internal data and analyzing it; looking at plans in the future; defining the outcome desired for the negotiations and understanding the objectives of the other party. After preparing thoroughly, the second step is to set and define goals because they form an important element of a successful negotiation. Tactics and strategy are determined by defined goals. The negotiator should then define their BATNA and then understand the way software vendor works. The whole preparation process demands the negotiator to determine when to negotiate, know what to negotiate and put everything down in writing.

Negotiations entail agreements and disagreements and sufficient preparations must be done so as to lead to a constructive negotiation. Negotiations are known to either boost all parties or boost one party and weaken another party. It is therefore important to consider a number of elements before engaging in a negotiation.
Negotiation preparation should start by determining the goals, that is what the negotiation seeks to achieve and the expectations of the other party as well. Preparations should also consider what is going to be traded. In this case the trade product is IVF Embroyscope; and it is imperative to determine what each of the parties is willing to compromise so as to reach a successful negotiation agreement.

Preparations for negotiation also necessitate parties to have alternatives to what they aim to achieve in the event that negotiation agreement fails. The supplier should be careful with this because it matters to the business and can positively or negatively impact the business. Alternatives will ensure the continuity of business without being harmed. Also, a good negotiation will consider existing relationship between the parties involved. In this case the relationship between Vetrolife and Sidra might shape their negotiation process. The main relationship aspect that has impact on the process of negotiation is how long the two parties have been in contact with each other. Relationship will help Sidra Hospital determine whether in the past there were hidden policies that might have adversely impacted further negotiation.

In a nutshell, preparation for negotiation should involve anything that has a capability of shaping the negotiation process. There should be sufficient preparation for negotiation so as to achieve a successful negotiation that meets goals and objectives of the two parties.

SWOT Analysis


Sidra Medicine Hospital draws its strengths from its state-of-the-art technology. The hospital has activated the interventional MRI Surgery Suite which has created a step change in the role played by Interventional Radiology in successful patient outcomes. The hospital has also launched paediatric surgery programs and it has as well signed an agreement with Assistive Technology Center so as to better its healthcare services (Chehab, Selim&Itani, 2018).This is a digital facility that has incorporated applications of most advanced technology.

Another strength of Sidra Medicine Hospital is its special expertise in various aspects of healthcare needs. There are various experts in different departments who have basically majored in particular areas of healthcare. For instance, the hospital has practitioners who specifically handle women and children’s healthcare needs.
Sidra Medicine is basically a new innovative service. This is not only a medical center but also a research Center, meaning that it is a groundbreaking hospital and an institution of research and education. This means that the hospital institution helps in building scientific expertise in Qatar and in the entire world.

The hospital has goodwill from leaders and the general public. It is an upcoming brand that is growing very first. It has a positive reputation especially on how its extraordinary nurses handle patients’ health care needs. The hospital is located in Doha, this is a superior location that gives it geographic advantage.

Weakness & opportunities

As much as the hospital has strengths that place it on a competitive side, it has its weaknesses as well. In this regard, the hospital needs improvement in these areas. Firstly, it lacks a clear marketing plan. Secondly, the hospital has been newly established and therefore it has gaps in its capabilities more especially in its service areas. Thirdly, management problem has been cited by some of its employees as one fact that derails services offered at the hospital facility. To some extent, there are undifferentiated service lanes (de Jong & Benton, 2019).
Sidra Medicine Hospital has a number of opportunities from which it can draw advantages.

Some of these opportunities include the availability of new technology; changes in population profile; new niche markets; there is no dominant competition; and political good will.


Threats for Sidra Medicine Hospital include competition from other healthcare providers who have built brand and established themselves over years. These competitors have superior access to distribution channels (Chehab, Selim & Itani, 2018). There are also economic shifts as well as change of contracts for major area employers.

PESTLE Analysis

A business is an entity that is vulnerable because due to the impacts from external forces. External forces such as technological, political, legal, socio-cultural among other forces have procurement ramifications from negotiation for the price to trade and management of the supplier.

The economic environment majorly affects how procurement operations are carried out by the buyers. Fluctuation of currency is the main challenge in the financial environment and so the buyer (Sirda Hospital) has to buy the product at the right time so that return on investment can be huge. Investing at the wrong time is tantamount to losing money.

Political change or policy change has an influence on who buys IVF Embroyscope product. Changes in policy and government at a domestic level can see reforms in regulation and changes in business support packages. This impacts how Vetrolife structure its supply chain for IVF Embroyscope product. In this regard, Vetrolife will base on political events in procurement negotiations so as to get rid of risks or minimize risks.

There is a constant change of technological landscape which has made customers to expect faster operation of businesses. Customers are also more connected because of the current and constant change of technological landscape because it offers them latest advancements. It is therefore important for the supplier of IVF Embroyscope product to keep on top of the changes in technological sector and the impacts of technology on their product and services. Technology plays a very important role in procurement because it determines negotiations and the way in which the buyer associates with the supplier. Basically, the buyer will consider the technological aspect of IVF Embroyscope product and this will determine the buyers’ interest on the product. IVF Embroyscope product that has embraced modern technology will actually change how the buyer will make bids for the product.
Customer behavior and expectations are also shaped by cultural and social factors. Vetrolife products like IVF Embroyscope should therefore not ignore external socio cultural factors because it might risk their business.

Furthermore, supply chain is greatly affected by environmental fluctuations. Environmental fluctuations can result to the scarcity or availability of the product on the market. The scarcity or availability of the product shapes negotiations and logically, when the product is readily available its bid will be somehow lower than when it is scarce.

In conclusion, PESTLE analysis helps negotiators to make decisions about the product by evaluating pros and cons of the product. The buyer, Sidra Hospital will look at some of the pros and cons of IVF Embroyscope product and this will give them a basis over which they can build their argument during negotiation.

Porter’s Five Forces

The following is a five forces analysis of IVF Embroyscope.

  • Threat to New entrants who can be competitors is of a medium pressure. Entry barriers to production and supply of IVF Embroyscope products are relatively low. However, there are many other suppliers of similar products. An example of such a supplier is Esco Medical.
  • Threat of substitute products ranges from medium to high. There are many suppliers of IVF Embroyscope product other than Vetrolife. IVF Embroyscope product from Vetrolife is not different from those offered by other suppliers. There are other technologies that can be embraced and used in place of IVF Embroyscope product.
  • Bargaining power of buyers is of IVF Embroyscope product is of high pressure. There is pressure on Sidra Vetrolife from an individual buyer or organization.
  • Bargaining power of suppliers has a low pressure and finally rivalry among the existing suppliers is of high pressure. The main competitor of Vetrolife is Esco Medical and many other suppliers of medical equipment (Chehab, Selim&Itani, 2018).


Power is determined by negotiators. There are three sources of negotiation power, these are a strong BATNA, role power and psychological power. The best source of bargaining power is the BATNA. For this reason Sidra Hospital must cultivate a strong outside alternative so that it can get the needed power of walking out of the nasty or unappealing business deal. For instance, Sidra Hospital has the ability of improving its negotiation power with the supplier of IVF Embroyscope (Vetrolife) product by finding another supplier of IVF Embroyscope product which it just likes as much. Also the supplier of IVF Embroyscope product can hold much power as well by looking for other buyers who can buy their products. But it is clear that the customer is the one who holds more power because he/she has ability of finding similar product from elsewhere.

Apart from BATNA power, power can come from the role played by the negotiators. For instance, Sidra Hospital holds a powerful brand and reputation. When negotiating with the suppliers of IVF Embroyscope product i.e. Vetrolife, Vetrolife may cede to the preferences of Sidra Hospital because of its brand.


The final price of IVF Embroyscope product is determined by the negotiation between Vetrolife and Sidra Hospital. An effective negotiation requires Sidra Hospital and the suppliers of IVF Embroyscope product must have a reservation cost and target cost. The best possible outcome for either of the parties is the target cost. Vetrolife may be willing to sell IVF Embroyscope product at a certain cost but the Sidra Hospital might prefer to buy it at a slightly lower cost. This shows two different conflicting costs that determine the basis of negotiation for IVF Embroyscope product between its supplier and Sidra Hospital.


The price of IVF Embroyscope product, just like costs involved will determine whether the deal will be successful or not. The final price of the product will either win Sidra Hospital to go for a deal or will derail it. In this case, both Sidra Hospital and Vetrolife who is the supplier are seeking advantage. Therefore their negotiation can base on a win-win situation and both parties must accommodate each other. Vetrolife may offer a perk like a no cost extended warranty so as to increase value of IVF Embroyscope product for Sidra Hospital. Thus, Sidra Hospital may accept higher price for IVF Embroyscope product. The final price can move to the target of the seller or the buyer through negotiation and this entirely depends on the flexibility of both Sidra Hospital and Vetrolife on the final price of IVF Embroyscope product.


Sidra hospital has a segmented culture. By profession, there are medicine services, nursing services, and other services. There is also intra-professionalism within each and every discipline, for instance there is surgery, nursing-ICU and attending patients. The executive level has also been divided into Director of Medical Services, Nursing Director, Director of Surgical Services and so forth.

Corruption perception index

Generally as per 2018, Qatar scored 62/100 points on the corruption perception index according to Transparency International. The average of Corruption index in Qatar has been 64.56 since the year 2003 to 2018. The lowest ever scored corruption index by Qatar is 52 points in 2004 and the highest was 77 points (Chehab, Selim, &Itani, 2018). However, there is no corruption perception index that has been done for Sidra Hospital.

Market Structure


Oligopoly refers to a market structure with a small number of firms, usually two or more, in this case, oligopoly refers to a small number of suppliers of IVF Embroyscope products. There are many suppliers of IVF Embroyscope product in many countries but such suppliers may not readily be existing in Qatar. In this regard it is evident that IVF Embroyscope product suppliers are operating in an oligopolic market. Oligopoly market structure has recognizable impact on negotiation of IVF Embroyscope product. For instance, the supplier of this product may be ready to lose a buyer like Sidra Hospital because the buyer may easily seek the product elsewhere. Therefore, the supplier may willingly accommodate the price for the product as bid by the buyer.


Monopoly refers to a market structure with one firm. In this case, monopoly refers to a single supplier of IVF Embroyscope product. Monopolistic power has a great influence on negotiation because the supplier has a total influence on the price of the product. A monopolistic market means that the buyer, Sidra Hospital has nowhere else to purchase IVF Embroyscope product and therefore the bargaining power of Sidra Hospital can be so low in a monopolistic market.


Duopoly refers to a market structure with two firms. This is a non-existent market structure for IVF Embroyscope product because there are more than two suppliers of this product. Duopolistic market structure, just like monopolistic and oligopolistic market structures, it has impacts on negotiation. A duopolistic market structure can easily be manipulated such that the prices offered by one supplier are similar to the prices offered by another supplier for the same IVF Embroyscope product. In this regard, Sidra Hospital has a little negotiation power more so when the two suppliers have influence over each other regarding the prices of IVF Embroyscope product.

Financial checks

Financial checks asses the responsibility of an organization by looking at how the organization manages money in its day to day operations. Financial checks also form an important aspect of negotiation because it helps to inform whether the buyer of the product has the ability of purchasing the product. For instance, the negotiation for IVF Embroyscope product is also determined by its financial checks, that is how it spends its money on a daily basis. So the negotiation of Sidra Hospital will in a way rely on its financial checks so as not to exceed a certain price for IVF Embroyscope product.


Sidra Medicine Hospital has adopted both internal and external benchmarking (Afridi, 2018). External benchmarking results to the exchange of best practices within the hospital facility and it helps in examining the performance over time; by examining performance over time it ensures that the hospital performance does not slip. Sidra Hospital also uses external benchmarking partially so as to lead to further process efficiencies and greater satisfaction of patients.

Main Approaches

Supplier spectrum

The supplier is Vetrolife; Vetrolife is a leading manufacturing company and a leading innovator of equipment of high quality such as ART workstations, long –term embryo incubators; time-lapse incubator and many other medical equipment and advanced technologies that meet the ever bulging demand of IVF industry. There are however many suppliers of IVF Embroyscope product in many countries from which Sidra Hospital can source. The supplier spectrum for this product is therefore wide and open

Negotiation contrium

A model for consortium budgeting used by Sidra Hospital is sharing the burden. Sidra Hospital is operating in a climate where there are recurrent budgetary constraints in health libraries. Therefore, it is somehow difficult to maintain services adequately to clinicians who should access quality information (Chehab, Selim, &Itani, 2018).To handle this scenario, Sidra Hospital came up with consortia of purchasing a wide range of resources of information ranging from books to software for online catalogue.

Negotiation Key elements


Negotiation agenda refers to list of goals that have been agreed upon to be achieved; these goals are then discussed following some order in a meeting. San agenda can either be formal or informal and it can as well be subtle in negotiations (Kuzmin&Khilukha, 2016). The negotiation meeting can be controlled by the negotiation agenda.

Objectives and targets

Before entering into negotiation the staff should enter negotiation with objectives that are defined clearly. There is a high possibility of conceding on price service or quality when the negotiation staff lacks clear set objectives. The person or staff negotiating should enter negotiation discussion with the vendor with clear and precise company objectives. There should be some flexibility in objectives, they should not be absolute (Kuzmin & Khilukha, 2016). Finally, the negotiators should not deviate from the subject matter and negotiate on irrelevant areas.


This simply refers to best alternative to a negotiated agreement (Kuzmin & Khilukha, 2016). This is usually a recommended thing to do whenever the other negotiating party refuses to negotiate. This simply refers to the best thing I can do without the other negotiating party as a negotiator. BATNA is the source of negotiation power. If there are other products that the buyer like Sidra Hospital can go for, then Sidra will have much negotiation power for the product as compared to the suppler of the product.


MIL means must haves, intended to have, like to have. This categorizes all points that are not agreed upon and then make a decision on the importance. In this case, Sidra Hospital must have IVF Embroyscope product and it has the intention of having the product and so it would like to have this product. The urge of having IVF Embroyscope product might therefore mean that Sidra Hospital must purchase the product no matter the route with which negotiations might take.


This simply means zone of possible agreement or just a range of bargaining (Kuzmin & Khilukha, 2016). ZOPA exists if the agreement has a potentiality of benefiting both negotiating parties is high as compared to benefits that will be realized from the alternative options. A successful negotiation outcome requires ZOPA critically. In a nutshell, ZOPA ensures that all the negotiating parties are satisfied with negotiations. ZOPA determines the final price of the IVF Embroyscope product and therefore establishes the negotiation process. For example, the supplier may be willing to sell IVF Embroyscope at $500, 000 and Sidra Hospital might be ready to buy IVF Embroyscope at $450, 000. Therefore ZOPA falls between these two prices between the seller and the buyer.

Bargaining Mix variables

Bargaining mix refers to a number of issues over which negotiations should be done. Every independent item in the bargaining mix has its own starting point, point of target and point of resistance. The reservation point or resistance point is the point in which the negotiator is not willing to settle (Kuzmin&Khilukha, 2016). Variables of the bargaining mix are volume; price, delivery; terms of payment; specification; and the contract period.

Process of negotiation

Opening statement

The opening statement is basically introduction; the negotiator introduces him/her. It is advised that at this time a tone that can set mood for proceeding with negotiation should be used. Parties involved in the negotiation process can be stressful and tense, in this regard, it is important to create a clear, relaxed positive atmosphere that encourages cooperation (Kuzmin&Khilukha, 2016). The opening statement should inform all the parties about the expected respect that will enable them sail through a successful negotiation.


This simply means the process of trying if different alternatives for negotiation can work. The negotiator puts alternative options on test so as to determine their capability of functioning (Askfors & Fornstedt, 2018). This is one step that determines whether the negotiation process will be successful or not.


This is a stage where the two teams can now sit together and speak out about their objectives and what they need to achieve (Askfors&Fornstedt, 2018). During this phase, the parties under negotiation support their positions after stating them. Also in this phase, substantiation; assertiveness; persuasion; logic and reasoning are all put together and applied in bargaining. Therefore, in bargaining stage all the parties make their deliberations that enable them reach under negotiation and agreement in an amicable way.


This is the final stage that marks the end of negotiation process. It is in this stage where the final terms are documented the way both parties agree after which both parties sign. There are still some loose ends that must be tightened up even after intense deliberations and hard bargaining (Kuzmin&Khilukha, 2016). In this regard, there are some further deliberations that should be made so that all the parties can be in agreement with the final documented draft.


Supply and procurement negotiations are determined by a number of factors and forces between the seller, the product and the buyer. The paper has presented and discussed supply and procurement negotiations at Sidra Hospital and what should be basically done so as to achieve a successful negotiation between the two parties. From the discussion, the paper has provided the background of supply and procurement negotiation starting from preparation for negotiation right to reaching to negotiation agreement. PESTLE, SWOT Analysis and Porter’s five forces are all important considerations in procurement negotiation process because they determine the price of the product and whether the buyer will be willing to purchase the product. In summary, the process of procurement requires a thorough analysis of underlying factors so as to successfully achieve the set goals and targets.


A recommendation is made for Sidra Hospital to consider establishing a procurement department that can carry an effective analysis of all underlying procurement factors before finally arriving to the deal.
Also during negotiation process all parties should consider each others goals and objectives. A negotiated deal should be arrived at without hurting another party; it should be a win-win deal such that all the parties feel satisfied ultimately.


  1. Afridi, A. H. (2018). Stakeholders Analysis for Serendipitous Recommenders system in Learning Environments. Procedia computer science, 130, 222-230.
  2. Ahmadi, A., Pishvaee, M. S., &Torabi, S. A. (2018).Procurement Management in Healthcare Systems.In Operations Research Applications in Health Care Management (pp. 569- 598).Springer, Cham.
  3. Askfors, Y., &Fornstedt, H. (2018). The clash of managerial and professional logics in public procurement: Implications for innovation in the health-care sector. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 34(1), 78-90.
  4. Chehab, M. A., Selim, N. A., &Itani, R. (2018).The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and Qatar, 2016. Journal of Taibah University medical sciences, 13(3), 309-310.
  5. de Jong, J. L., & Benton, W. C. (2019). Dependence and power in healthcare equipment supply chains. Health Care Management Science, 22(2), 336-349.
  6. Edler, J., & Yeow, J. (2016).Connecting demand and supply: The role of intermediation in public procurement of innovation. Research Policy, 45(2), 414-426
  7. Kuzmin, O., &Khilukha, O. (2016).Regulation of stakeholders’ interests in corporate governance through negotiations. Економічнийчасопис-ХХІ, (161), 56-60.
  8. Moss, R. J., Batista, A., Makridaki, D., Süle, A., & Kohl, S. (2019). Procurement. Eur J Hosp Pharm, 26(3), 173-174.
  9. Freour, T., Lammers, J., Splingart, C., Jean, M., & Barriere, P. (2012). Time lapse (Embryoscope®) as a routine technique in the IVF laboratory: a useful tool for better embryo selection?. Gynecologie, obstetrique & fertilite, 40(9), 476-480.

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10 Creative Environmental Science Project Ideas

10 Creative Environmental Science Project Ideas

Environmental Science Project IdeasAs an environmental science student, you’re not just earning a degree; you’re stepping into a world of opportunities to make a tangible impact. Your capstone project is your chance to join the ranks of these change-makers. In this blog, we’ll explore 10 most creative environmental capstone project ideas that could set you on the path to becoming an eco-hero.

Ready to make a difference? Here are 10 environmental science capstone project ideas that not only align with environmental sustainability but also have the potential to drive meaningful change in societies.

1. Urban farming solutions

Example Project Title: “Greening the Concrete Jungle: A Community-Based Urban Farming Initiative
Transform unused urban spaces into thriving gardens. This project could involve community participation, soil testing, and the implementation of sustainable farming techniques.


2. Renewable energy in local communities

Project Title: “Harnessing the Sun: A Feasibility Study on Solar Energy in Small Towns
Work with local governments to implement renewable energy solutions like solar panels or wind turbines. Assess the feasibility, costs, and community benefits.


3. Waste management innovations

Example Project Title: “Towards Zero Waste: Implementing a Smart Waste Management System in Schools
Develop a waste management system that focuses on reducing, reusing, and recycling. This could involve creating a community composting program or a smart waste sorting system.


4. Water conservation techniques

Project Title: “Drop by Drop: Implementing Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Areas
Explore the potential of rainwater harvesting as a sustainable water conservation method. This could involve designing a prototype and testing its efficiency in different settings.


5. Air quality monitoring

Example Project Title: “Breathing Easy: Developing a Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring System
Design and implement an air quality monitoring system that can be easily deployed in public spaces. The project could also involve creating an app to disseminate real-time data to the community.


6. Sustainable transportation

Project Title: “On the Move: Promoting Electric Bicycles for Short-Distance Commutes
Investigate the feasibility of promoting electric bicycles for short-distance commutes. This could involve surveys, cost-benefit analyses, and pilot programs.


7. Eco-friendly building designs

Example Project Title: “Building a Greener Tomorrow: Sustainable Architecture for Public Spaces
Study the principles of sustainable architecture and apply them to design an eco-friendly public building, such as a community center or a library.


8. Community education on recycling

Project Title: “Recycle Right: A Community Education Program on Effective Recycling
Create an educational program aimed at improving recycling habits within a community. This could involve workshops, informational pamphlets, and even a small-scale media campaign.


9. Wildlife conservation initiatives

Project Title: “Saving Our Feathers: A Conservation Project for Local Bird Species
Focus on the conservation of a specific local wildlife species. This could involve habitat restoration, public awareness campaigns, and collaboration with local wildlife organizations.


10. Climate change awareness campaigns

Project Title: “Warming Up to the Truth: A Campus-Wide Climate Change Awareness Campaign
Design and execute a campaign to raise awareness about climate change. This could involve seminars, social media campaigns, and interactive exhibits to educate the public on the urgency of climate action.

11. Conservation biology initiatives

Project Title: “Saving pollinating insects by reducing the use of pesticides or CFC propellants”

Run an awareness campaign to educate the public on the need to save declining population of pollinating insects. The use of CFC propellants has been linked to reduction of pollinating insects. These insects play a key role in the environment by pollinating flowers to ensure we get fruits.


Tips on How to Develop Environmental Capstone Project Ideas

Environmental science capstone project is done as a culmination of your studies.  You will be required to develop a topic that addresses environmental conservation or change initiative. Your project should be a marriage of your skills, interests, and the needs of the community or environment you aim to serve. At Expert Writing Help we have outlined tips that will aid you develop innovative environmental capstone project ideas with ease.

1.    Align with your skills and interests

Your project should resonate with your personal interests and leverage your academic skills. Passion fuels perseverance, and you’ll need plenty of both to see your project through to completion.


2.    Assess community or environmental needs

Conduct a needs assessment to identify gaps or challenges in your community or the environment at large. Your project should aim to fill these gaps or offer solutions to existing problems.


3.    Consult experts and mentors

Before finalizing your project idea, seek advice from professionals in the field. Their insights can help refine your project scope, methodology, and execution plan.

4.    Evaluate resources and feasibility

Take stock of the resources you have at your disposal, including time, funding, and equipment. Make sure your project is realistic given these constraints.


5.    Conduct preliminary research

Before diving in, conduct some background research to identify similar projects or studies. This will help you understand what has been done before and how you can add unique value.


6.    Run a pilot test

If possible, run a small-scale pilot test to validate your project’s feasibility and impact. The results can provide valuable data and insights for the full-scale project.

Your passion, your commitment, and your ingenuity are what will turn these ideas from mere concepts into transformative solutions.

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40 Community Health Nursing Research Topics

40 Community Health Nursing Research Topics

best Community Health Nursing Research TopicsCommunity health nursing is one of the most picked nursing specialties mainly for its wide-ranging job opportunities in a variety of healthcare or community settings. A community health nurse can be employed to work in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, correctional facilities, public health departments, county and state departments of health, schools, or occupational health programs among other facilities in the community. Community health nurses may also travel to serve communities in remote locations solo or as part of a multidisciplinary team.

Generally, community health nurses work toward providing successful outcomes for critical circumstances. In providing their duties, community health nurses serve as agents of healthful changes in different communities. This is because of their interaction with underserved communities, these nurses can advocate for better services as well as inform policymakers on the needed reforms in healthcare.


If you are pursuing to become a community health nurse, you must already know how hectic the program is, especially when it comes to completing assignments. Finding a nursing research topic idea is one of the assignments that give community health nursing students sleepless nights. This is because, with the right community health nursing research topic idea, writing the research paper becomes seamless.expert writing help

What is a Community Health Nursing Research?

A community health nursing research focuses on a community health nursing-relevant topic instead of a general nursing-relevant research topic. As such, this nursing research paper tackles the topic from a community health nursing standpoint.

Additionally, researchers undertake nursing research to produce new knowledge in community nursing or confirm existing knowledge based on community nursing theory by testing hypothesis or answering research questions, which is major distinction with EBP and quality improvement projects.

When writing a community health nursing research paper, you must adhere to the laid nursing research paper writing standards. This means that your community health nursing research paper contains all the vital components, it is appropriately formatted and structured and the citations are formatted according to APA style commonly used in nursing papers.

Types of Community Health Nursing Research

There are two types of community health nursing research: qualitative and quantitative research. The difference between these two types of nursing research arises from the research design one intends to use.

Quantitative research in community health nursing

Quantitative research in community health nursing aims at gaining empirical evidence through deduction and generalization. In this case, you will gather evidence to either support or refute a certain theory and decide to what extent the outcome can be generalized to a larger population. Quantitative research can either be experimental or non-experimental in design.

Experimental designs imply the research exercise (experiments) requires strict control from the researcher. This design can be used to establish cause-and-effect relations or predictions. However, the experiments done are often blind to help avoid bias. Experimental designs are categorized as:

  • True-experimental designs: In these designs, cause-and-effect relationships are examined in a controlled setting. These designs entail studying two groups of the population who got different treatments that we assigned randomly.
  • Quasi-experimental designs: These designs differ from true experimental designs in that they lack random assignment.

Non-experimental designs focus on describing what happens naturally. These designs are used to detect causes and effects but are not effective for making predictions. Non-experimental designs are categorized as:

  • Descriptive: Descriptive non-experimental designs are focused on under-researched topics, subjects, or phenomena. In this case, you describe it, examine how often it occurs, and classify the information you have acquired.
  • Correlational: Correlational research focuses on the examination of relationships between variables. Therefore, you ought to measure the variables, analyze the outcomes, and present statistics.

Qualitative research in community health nursing

Qualitative research in community health nursing focuses on individual experiences and is done through observation and interaction with patients through interviews, diaries, and notes. An induction method is usually used to allow you to acquire evidence to support a theory without generalizing the outcomes. qualitative research design is classified into four types:

  • Grounded Theory: Grounded theory research entails the influence of social processes on individuals. As such, you will need to interview the individuals themselves, their relatives, spouses, etc. before synthesizing the data into one theory.
  • Phenomenology: This is a research design that focuses on describing the phenomena as they are experienced by a subject. In this research, you are required to select people who are familiar with the particular health issue. You will then gain information from each individual the make an informed conclusion.
  • Narrative Inquiry: This is a research study design that is grounded in the interpretation of the personal accounts of the participants. As such, you will ask your subjects to talk about their health experiences and then analyze their narratives. Be sure to take into account the contents and structure of their narratives.
  • Ethnography: This research design is connected to the influence of a specific health culture on individuals. Therefore, it involves describing the unique attributes of the health culture from an insider’s viewpoint.

With these types of community health nursing research in mind, you can confidently choose your nursing research topic without a hassle. Now, let’s look at how to choose a good community health nursing research topic.

How to Choose a Suitable Topic for Community Health Nursing Research?

To craft w well-articulated and relevant community health nursing research paper, you need to first choose a suitable topic. So, how do you choose the right research topic? Well, here are the steps to choosing the most appropriate research topic for your community health nursing research paper.

  • Firstly, identify an ideal community health nursing research area you are passionate about
  • Secondly, from your preferred community health nursing research area, collect enough research ideas
  • Brainstorm all the gathered research topic ideas and eliminate the topics with less or no research scope
  • From the research ideas you have shortlisted, pick one community health nursing research topic that you feel comfortable exploring and writing about.
  • The community health nursing research topic you settle on should satisfy the research paper writing guidelines shared by your lecturer or college.


you can inquire from our DNP writing service for free assistance on developing emerging and innovating research topic.

40 Community Health Nursing Research Topics

  1. Frailty as a deciding factor for nursing home placement-review of literature
  2. The role of nursing in educating women about Intimate Partner Violence and recourse choices in the US
  3. The critical role of nurses in raising awareness and educating patients in a multicultural environment-literature review
  4. Serving in underserved communities-role definitions of community health nurses in the US
  5. Double demanding patients in community health services-nursing perspective
  6. The role and scope of nurses in community health care in the US
  7. A review of the education practices in community health and implications for practicing nurses in the US
  8. Simulation as an interactive tool in community health nursing to improve societal health outcomes – a review
  9. Health and lifestyle advice – a look at nurse scope of responsibility in community health to promote well being
  10. Mental health nursing in the US – an investigation of the personal challenges in pursuing the profession and how these are managed
  11. Psychiatric care by nursing professionals within community settings – review of literature
  12. How are nurses trained to deal with depression in inpatient settings in the US? An investigation
  13. The mental health nurse – scope of responsibilities and challenges faced in outpatient settings
  14. A review of nursing practices and challenges encountered in adolescent and women’s prisons in the US
  15. The position of the family in community health service provision – an exploratory investigation
  16. Reporting and disclosure policies in community health nursing – a literature reviews
  17. Ethics in community health nursing – a review
  18. An assessment of social outcomes based on community health nursing care—how valid are the measurements?
  19. Communication and community health service and care provision – establishing the link and its outcomes
  20. Evidence-based community health nursing-literature review on deviations and complements of the regulatory frameworks and guidelines
  21. Best practice standards in community health care in the US– Review of literature
  22. An investigative perspective on the historical evolution of community-based health care and nursing provision in the US
  23. An investigation of the global progress in standards of community health nursing
  24. Community health nursing – going through the motions or provisions of care and empathy?
  25. An investigation into the outcomes of the use of assessment and education tools by community health nurses in the US
  26. An investigation of the global progress in standards of community health nursing
  27. The role of community support in maintaining emotional health during pregnancy
  28. An analysis of HIV risk practices amongst women of childbearing age
  29. Knowledge and attitude of black pregnant women towards antenatal exercise: A cross-sectional survey
  30. The effects of dietary counseling on gestational weight gain and glucose metabolism in obese pregnant women
  31. The role of school-based interventions in preventing childhood mental health problems
  32. Occupational preferences, cognitive and affective factors in female students in the US: A comparative study
  33. Patient perception and satisfaction with healthcare professionals at primary care facilities
  34. Maternal comprehension of home-based growth charts and its effect on growth
  35. The assessment of the nutritional status of the community; Case study
  36. Socioeconomic differentials in child nutrition and morbidity in remote areas of the US
  37. The predictors of pregnancy-associated change in physical activity in a rural white population
  38. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome
  39. A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnant women
  40. Retention of pregnancy-related weight in the early postpartum period: Implications for women’s health services

How to Write a Winning Community Health Nursing Research Paper?

If you are unsure of how to write a brilliant community health nursing research paper, then this section is a must-read. We have outlined basic steps to help you write a top-grade community health nursing research paper without a hassle.

  • Now that you have your ideal community health nursing research topic, perform an in-depth analysis of your topic to derive a powerful thesis statement for your research paper.
  • Secondly, using appropriate nursing research methods, do in-depth research on your chosen topic and collect the most relevant and valuable points, sources, and materials in support of your thesis statement.
  • With the gathered ideas, sources, and materials, craft a well-structured essay outline including the introduction, body, and conclusion.
  • With the draft, write a comprehensive community health nursing research paper with adherence to the outline. Be sure to exhaustively explain all the main points relevant to the thesis statement while supporting it with reliable evidence and references.
  • Once you finish writing your research paper, edit and proofread it. Make sure your nursing research paper is flawless and plagiarism free before submission.

Final Thought

When choosing a community health nursing research topic, you can feel like you have nowhere to start from or even under a lot of pressure. Without a doubt, choosing a community health nursing research topic can prove difficult. However, with good guidance, you can settle on your most interesting and researchable topic.

Hopefully, you will find our list of 40 best community health nursing research topics inspirational and worthy of your consideration when writing your nursing research topic. Besides, if you don’t have the time to research ad write your winning community health nursing research paper by yourself, you can ask us to help with writing nursing paper for you. Our nurse writers are dependable and provide high-quality research paper writing services.

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Sampling Theory in Nursing Research

Common Sampling Theory in Nursing Research

Sampling Theory in Nursing ResearchSampling theory in nursing research refers to the principles and approaches used to choose a representative sample of participants from a larger population for a research study. The sampling theory is essential in nursing research since it enables researchers to draw conclusions about a population based on the data collected from a smaller group of people.

Similarly, sampling theory is used in nursing capstones to draw representative samples in a population. In this article, we look at some of the key concepts as well as considerations associated with sampling theory in nursing research and when to use this theory. So, without much ado, let us look at the key concepts for sampling theory in nursing research;

What are the Key Concepts of Sampling Theory in Nursing Research?


In sampling theory or any research done, population refers to the entire group of individuals that the researcher wants to research. For instance, if you intend to focus your study on elderly patients with diabetes, then the population would be all elderly patients with diabetes.


In nursing research, a sample refers to the subset of the population that is selected for the research. Since it is not feasible or practical to research the entire population, researchers often select a representative sample for purposes of gathering data. The sample should possess similar characteristics to the entire population. A representative sample ensures that the research is free from bias and external validity shortcomings.

Sampling Methods

Sampling methods refer to the various methods used to sample data used in nursing research, and they include probability and non-probability sampling.

Probability Sampling: Probability sampling is a sampling method that involves the random selection of participants from a population while ensuring every individual has the same chance of being included in the sample. Some of the common probability sampling methods include stratified random sampling, simple random sampling, and cluster sampling.

Non-Probability Sampling: The non-probability sampling method does not involve random selection of the sample, which may introduce bias into the sampling. Some of the commonly known non-probability sampling include; convenience sampling – selecting participants based on availability, purposive sampling – selecting participants with specific characteristics), and snowball sampling –  selecting participants through referrals.

Sample size

It is crucial to determine the appropriate sample size to ensure that the research findings are statistically significant and generalizable to the population. For sample size calculations, you should consider factors such as expected effect size, desired level of precision, and statistical power.


The sample should be representative of the population to ensure that the findings can be generalized. Researchers need to carefully consider the characteristics and demographics of the population when selecting participants to create a sample that precisely reflects the large population.

Sampling bias

Sampling bias refers to when the sample is not representative of the larger population, thus leading to distortion or an inaccurate representation of the study findings. Therefore, researchers should be conscious of potential sources of bias and take steps to minimize or account for them.

In a nutshell, sampling theory in nursing research is important since it ensures the research findings are valid, reliable, and applicable to the target population. By using suitable sampling methods, nursing researchers can enhance the quality and generalization of their study findings, thus contributing to evidence-based nursing practice.

When to Use Sampling Theory in Nursing Research

In nursing research, sampling theory is used by researchers whenever they want to draw conclusions about larger populations based on data gathered from a smaller sample. Well, what are some of the situations when sampling theory is used in nursing research:


Often, nursing researchers aim to generalize their findings to a larger population. So, by selecting a representative sample as per suitable sampling methods, researchers can make inferences about the entire population. For instance, if research aims to investigate the effectiveness of a nursing intervention for a specific condition, the outcome can be generalized to the broader population of patients with that condition.

Limited resources

Essentially, researching an entire population may be impractical or unfeasible due to limitations like time, cost, or logistics. However, sampling theory allows researchers to choose a smaller, manageable sample that still offers meaningful insights into the research question. As such, researchers can make efficient use of accessible resources and conduct research within realistic constraints.

Ethical considerations

In some situations, it may not be ethically appropriate or feasible to include the entire population in a research study. For instance, research involving vulnerable populations or invasive procedures may require researchers to select a smaller sample to minimize risks and ensure participant safety. Moreover, the sampling theory helps researchers to choose an appropriate sample size and sampling method that balances scientific rigor with ethical considerations.

Statistical analysis

Sampling theory is closely linked to statistical analysis. With the use of suitable sampling methods, researchers can apply statistical tests, and inferential statistics, and calculate confidence intervals to draw valid conclusions for the sample data. Therefore, researchers can quantify the level of confidence in their findings and make statistical inferences about the population parameters.

Research design

Sampling theory is an essential part of research design. Researchers need to consider the target population, research objectives, available resources, and practical constraints when determining the sampling strategy. As such, the choice of sampling method and sample size directly influences the study’s validity, reliability, and generalization.

In a nutshell, sampling theory is used in nursing research, especially when researchers want to select a representative sample from a large population to draw valid conclusions and make generalizations. The sampling theory is useful, especially when research resources are limited, ethical concerns come into play, or statistical analysis and research design need a smaller sample for practical reasons.

In case you face any difficulty applying sampling theory in nursing research you can seek help from our DNP capstone project writers for assistance any time of the day.

Methods of Sampling in Sampling Theory in Nursing Research

Sampling is a crucial aspect of nursing research that enables researchers to gather representative data from a larger population. By picking a subset of individuals or units from a target population, researchers can draw inferences and make generalizations about the large group.

Understanding the different methods of sampling is essential for ensuring the reliability and validity of research findings in nursing. So, what are some of the different sampling methods commonly used in nursing research, their advantages and limitations?

Probability sampling methods

Probability sampling methods are based on the principles of random selection, ensuring that every member of the target population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. The probability sampling methods provide a solid foundation for generalizing research findings. These methods include:

  • Simple random sampling

In simple random sampling, each member of the population is assigned a unique number, and a random selection process is utilized in choosing the participants. The simple random sampling method is direct but may be challenging to implement in larger populations.

  • Stratified random sampling

Stratified random sampling involves the division of populations into sub-groups or strata based on specific characteristics like gender or age. Participants are randomly chosen from each stratum, thus ensuring representation from each group. Stratified random sampling allows for more accurate comparisons between groups. However, it requires prior knowledge of the population’s characteristics.

  • Cluster sampling

Cluster sampling entails dividing the population into clusters or groups such as hospitals or nursing units. Researchers randomly select a few clusters and include all individuals within those clusters in the sample. Cluster sampling is useful when the population is geographically dispersed or difficult to access individually.

Non-Probability sampling methods

Non-probability sampling methods do not rely on random selection thus making it difficult to generalize the findings to the entire population. Regardless, these methods are often more practical and cost-effective in nursing research. The following are some of the non-probability sampling methods:

  • Convenience sampling

Convenience sampling entails selecting individuals who are readily available and accessible to the research. Although this method of sampling is convenient, it may introduce bias as it relies on the researcher’s judgment and accessibility.

  • Purposive sampling

Purposive sampling involves selecting participants who possess specific characteristics or experiences relevant to the research question. Researchers purposefully choose individuals who can provide rich and in-depth information. While this method allows for target data collection, it may limit generalizability.

  • Snowball sampling

Snowball sampling depends on participants referring to other potential participants who share similar characteristics or experiences. The snowball sampling method is useful when researching rare or hard-to-reach populations. Regardless, it may also introduce bias as participants may refer to individuals who share their perspectives.


Sampling theory in nursing research as it enables researchers to collect data that represents the larger population.  Understanding the various sampling methods, both probability and non-probability is vital for researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their research.

Probability sampling methods such as simple random sampling, cluster sampling, and stratified random methods, offer a strong foundation for generalization. On the other hand, non-probability sampling methods, like convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling, provide practical alternatives when probability sampling is challenging or not feasible.

As such, researchers must carefully reflect the strengths and limitations of each sampling method, ensuring that their chosen method aligns with the research question, population characteristics, and available resources. By using suitable sampling methods, nursing researchers can enhance the validity and reliability of their findings, ultimately contributing to evidence-based nursing practice.

10 Steps to Writing a Winning MBA Project Proposal

10 Essential Steps to Writing Winning MBA Project Proposal

In business, ideas are prolific, but a well-crafted proposal to bring those ideas to life is pure gold.

This is especially true when it comes to your MBA journey, where your project proposal can be the key to unlocking opportunities and paving the way for academic success. The proposal is not merely a formality but a testament to the researcher’s ability to conduct significant research. It is a document that is often used to assess the feasibility of the project and the researcher’s preparedness to undertake the study.

How do you ensure your MBA project proposal stands out from the rest though? How do you craft a proposal that not only meets the academic standards but also captures the attention and interest of your audience?  This post will guide you through 10 essential steps to craft a winning MBA project proposal.

  1. From choosing the right topic,
  2. Conducting preliminary research,
  3. Defining the problem statement,
  4. Setting objectives,
  5. Developing the methodology,
  6. Creating a project timeline,
  7. Reviewing the literature,
  8. Outlining expected results
  9. Preparing the budget
  10. To proofreading and editing your proposal.

Why Do You Need an MBA Project Proposal?

how to write MBA project proposalOkay, let’s get real for a second; You might be sitting there, scratching your head, thinking, “Why do I even need to write an MBA project proposal though?” Well, let me break it down for you:

Imagine you’re about to embark on a road trip. You wouldn’t just jump in the car and start driving without a clue where you’re going, right? You’d have a map, or at least use the GPS on your phone.

That’s exactly what your MBA project proposal is – it’s your roadmap, your GPS. It’s what guides you from the starting point of your project all the way to the finish line. Something to keep in mind too is that your project proposal isn’t just for you. It’s also your chance to show everyone else what you’re made of.

It’ll help you show your professors and peers that you’ve got the knowledge and skills to tackle a big problem and come up with a solution. That said, let’s keep going. Next up, we’re going to take a deep dive into the 10 most essential steps to crafting an awesome project proposal.

Step 1: Choosing the Right Topic

We will start with – picking your topic. Now, you might be thinking, “I’ve got a tens MBA project topics ideas, how do I even choose just one?” Well, choosing the right topic for your MBA project proposal isn’t just about picking something that interests you (although that’s definitely important!).

It’s also about choosing a topic that’s relevant, impactful, and manageable. What do I mean by this?

  • Relevance. You want to choose a topic that’s relevant to your field of study and the current business landscape. Think about the big issues in your field right now.
  • Impact. The best MBA project proposals are those that have the potential to make a real impact. So, think about how your project could contribute to your field.
  • Manageability. It’s easy to get carried away with big ideas, but remember, your project needs to be something you can actually achieve.

Think about the resources you have available, the timeframe you’re working with, and the scope of your project. You want to choose a topic that’s ambitious, but also realistic.

Step 2: Conducting Preliminary Research

Okay you now have got the topic, it’s time to roll up your sleeves and get down to business. And by business, I mean research.

A solid MBA project proposal is built on a foundation of thorough, well-conducted research. It’s like the secret sauce that adds depth and credibility to your proposal. So, let’s talk about how to do it right.

  • First things first, you want to start with a broad overview of your topic. Look for general information that can help you understand the context and background of your topic.
  • Next, you want to start narrowing down your research. This is where you start looking at specific studies, reports, and papers related to your topic. You’re looking for data, facts, and insights that can support your project proposal. Use academic search engines like Google Scholar, your university database, and references from relevant articles to find existing research that helps answer your research question. You can also leverage other students’ dissertations related to your topic.
  • Finally, remember that research is a process. It takes time and patience. But trust me, it’s worth it. The more you know about your topic, the stronger your project proposal will be.

Step 3: Defining the Problem Statement

Your statement of the problem is like the heart of your project proposal. It’s the thing that gives your project purpose and direction.

It’s the question you’re trying to answer, the problem you’re trying to solve, the issue you’re trying to address. It’s the “why” behind your project.

So, how do you do it?

  • Start by clearly stating the problem. What is the issue you’ve identified in your research?
  • Next, explain why this problem matters. Why should people care about this issue?
  • Finally, describe what you don’t know yet – the gaps in knowledge that your project will fill.

Step 4: Setting the Objectives

These are the goals you’re aiming for. They’re the “what” of your project.

But here’s the catch – your objectives need to be SMART:

  • Specific: Specific means your objectives should be clear and precise. Instead of saying “I want to improve business strategies,” say “I want to develop a new marketing strategy to increase customer engagement by 20%.”
  • Measurable: Measurable means you should be able to track your progress. You need to know when you’ve achieved your objective, so make sure there’s a way to measure it.
  • Achievable:  Achievable, your objectives should be realistic. It’s great to aim high, but make sure your objectives are something you can actually accomplish.
  • Relevant: Relevant, be aligned with your problem statement and the overall goal of your project.
  • Time-bound:  Time-bound, have a deadline. When do you want to achieve your objectives? Set a timeline to keep yourself on track.

Step 5: Developing the Methodology

Think of your research methodology as your project’s blueprint. It’s the plan that outlines how you’re going to conduct your research and achieve your objectives. It’s the “how” of your project.

Your methodology should cover a few key areas.

  • First, you’ll want to outline your research design. Are you conducting a case study? A survey? An experiment? Describe the approach you’re taking and why it’s the best fit for your project.
  • Next, you’ll want to detail your data collection methods. Are you conducting interviews? Sending out questionnaires? Mining data from existing databases? Explain how you’ll gather the data you need for your project.
  • And finally, don’t forget to address any ethical considerations. If you’re dealing with human subjects, for example, you’ll need to explain how you’ll protect their privacy and obtain their consent.

Step 6: Creating a Project Timeline

Your timeline should outline the key stages of your project and set deadlines for each one. This includes everything from your initial research and data collection to your analysis, writing, and revisions.

But here’s something to note – your timeline needs to be realistic. It’s easy to underestimate how long tasks will take, so give yourself plenty of time for each stage. And don’t forget to factor in some buffer time for unexpected delays or challenges.

Step 7: Reviewing the Literature

Literature review isn’t just about finding relevant sources. It’s also about understanding the bigger picture.

How do you do it? Well,

  • Start by searching for sources that are relevant to your topic. Look for recent studies, influential theories, and key data.
  • Then, read these sources critically. What are their strengths and weaknesses? How do they relate to your project?

And remember, a good literature review isn’t just a summary of sources. It’s a critical analysis.

Step 8: Outlining the Expected Results

Outlining your expectations is about setting clear expectations and preparing for different outcomes.

Your expected results section is where you get to imagine what success looks like for your project.

Be aware that – research is unpredictable. Things don’t always go according to plan. So, it’s also important to think about potential challenges or obstacles you might face.

What will you do if your results don’t align with your expectations? How will you handle unexpected findings?

Outlining your expected results is a bit like drawing a map of the future. It helps you prepare for the journey ahead and anticipate any bumps in the road.

Step 9: Preparing the Budget

Your budget should outline all the costs associated with your project. This could include everything from materials and equipment to software, travel expenses, or even your time.

The key here is to be thorough and realistic. Underestimating your budget can lead to stress and delays down the line, so it’s better to overestimate than underestimate.

This shows your professors or any potential funders that you’ve thought carefully about your budget and are making responsible financial decisions.

Take your calculator and start crunching those numbers, and create a budget that will fuel your project to success.

Step 10: Proofreading and Editing

Here’s your chance to make your proposal shine and ensure it’s the best it can be.

Time to check for clarity, coherence, and, of course, those pesky grammar and spelling mistakes.

However, proofreading and editing isn’t just about fixing mistakes. It’s also about improving your writing. It’s about making sure your ideas are clearly communicated, your arguments are compelling, and your proposal is engaging to read.

Remember, your MBA project proposal is a reflection of you and your project. So, make it shine. Make it clear. Make it compelling. And most importantly, make it yours.

Sometimes you may need extra eyes to proofread and edit your proposal to avoid confirmation bias. It is not unethical to have a professional editor go over your work and correct errors and mistakes. Today, you will easily find writers and editors offering to help with writing MBA project online. While at it, remember to verify that the proofreaders and editors are qualified and knowledgeable to avoid last minute frustrations.

How To Create Map in ArcGIS Pro

How To Create Map in ArcGIS Pro

GIS involves utilization of tools in the GIS software to manage and analyze geographic(spatial) data. It mostly involves collection of data, processing and interpretation with an aim of creating maps. Other than possessing problem solving, team work, excellent communication and strong analytical skills; GIS Analysts must have knowledge of some basic geoprocessing tools. Geoprocessing tools are very essential when one wants to execute a certain analysis using the GIS software such ArcGIS Pro.

Map making mostly involves defining the core theme of the plan, defining type of map chosen to convey the theme, detecting the target audience and framing the finest way to organize, merge and configure the features to efficiently communicate the map’s intended message.

Map making in ArcGIS Pro involves five steps, namely:

  1. Preparation
  2. Mapping
  3. Labelling
  4. Layout
  5. Proof checking

To minimize errors, the analyst must follow these steps chronologically without skipping any step.


Step One: Preparation

This is the most important in map making as it lays the foundation on the kind of output(map) that will be generated. It gives a room for the analyst to decide:Where they are going to map? What kind of scale and extend they will apply? Setting and choosing appropriate zone and coordinate system.

Firstly, Start the Software (ArcGIS Pro) and sign in. Move the cursor to the start page and click open another project, create a new layout guided by the chosen dimensions hence printing won’t be problematic. To do this, move the cursor to “new layout icon”, click and navigate to your desired size to be printed. Secondly, the empty map should be added to the layout and setting its position and size. The next step involves activation, panning and zooming of the map to desired extent and scale. To activate, in the contents pane, right click the map frame and click activate.

In addition, open the map properties and apply the set scale as a reference scale, insert a layer template, save the edits and close the map activation. Final step preparation stage involves downloading data enclosed by the defined extent and scale: and noting down the source of the data for later reference.

Move the cursor on the ribbon and click view, click reset panes and choose reset panes for mapping. This will make sure catalog and contents panes remain open.  In the content pane, right click layout and click properties. On the layout properties icon, click general tab and makes the desired changes by renaming it.

Guides are useful in aligning elements on the layout. To add guidelines, right click the ruler ribbon and click add guides. In the guides dialog box, navigate to orientation and choose both. Navigate again to placement drop down arrow choose offset from edge. Choose your desired value in the margin box and click Ok.

how to create map using ArcGIS Pro
Image 1: Showing the process of choosing a desired layout.


Step Two: Mapping

This step involves adding data into the map as well as removing the unwanted layers as you merge the datasets into a single layer. It is also in this stage that will determine whether you have all the required or need some more datasets. Definition queries can be used to filter out the unwanted data to be displayed on the map.

Before adding data to the map, its important to consider the purpose of the map, the accuracy of the data in relation to the message to be conveyed, how dense the dataset is and the age of the data. To add data, move the cursor the “add data” icon, expand and click “add data to the map” > move to where you have saved your data, select the required datasets and click Ok for them to be added in the map as shown in the image 2 &3 below.

ArcGIS Pro Map layout
Image 2: Showing the location of the datasets to be added in the map.
Image 3: Showing how data is added in the map

The next move will be to create/make a new geodatabase file and exporting each of the layers into it and renaming them with new names. To create a geodatabase, in the catalog pane right click folder and click new file geodatabase. Remove the old layers from the map while keeping the new ones. Now symbolization of the data should be carried out to give it a better look/appearance.


Step Three: Labelling

This step is very crucial in map making as it gives maps better looks. First and foremost, turning on of the labelling should be done for the suitable layers.To turn on labels, choose a feature layer in the content pane. On the feature layer click labelling tab. In the layer group click on label. Secondly, create a different label class for every style of text.Thirdly, keep playing with the labelling properties until they meet your desired appearance. Lastly, convert the labels to annotation and ensure your taste is met through editing.


Step Four: Making a layout

This step involves making a map that will be used as a key. To create a new map, move the cursor to insert icon on the window ribbon and click new map. Firstly, insert a new map and choose a suitable coordinate system. To choose a suitable coordinate system, move the cursor to the map properties, click coordinate tab, click Ok to set the coordinate system. Secondly, add the key map you have created to the layout. Thirdly, create a new layout guided by the chosen dimensions hence printing won’t be problematic. The empty map should be added to the layout and setting its position and size. The next step involves activation, panning and zooming of the map to desired extent and scale. In addition, open the map properties and apply the set scale as a reference scale, insert a layer template, save the edits and close the map activation. Add some more data that can explain to the target audience/reader where in the universe they are looking at. Make appropriate symbols and label for the map.


The next move involves inserting cartographic items. To do this, click insert icon and use cursor to move over and clicking on items that you like to insert to your map. Some of these cartographic items that need to be inserted may include: Title of the map, legend, scale bar, north arrow, graticule or grid, source credits, descriptive text, graphs, charts and pictures.

how to create map layout using ArcGIS Pro
Image 4: Showing a final map with legend, scale bar, title and north arrow.


Step Five: Proof reading

This is also very important stage of mapping that should not be skipped at any cost. This stage allows the cartographer to correct some mistakes they may have made during map making. To do this, ensure all the layers necessary are turned on. First the layout must be exported in pdf format for the errors to be seen and corrected on the map. The process has to be repeated for several time to ensure that all errors are fixed.

how to create arcgis pro
Image 5: Showing the prof reading process to ensure there are minimum to no errors in the final output.

Maps can also be created from carrying some spatial analysis. Some the basic of the common analysis may include: Buffering, calculating density by container, carrying out analysis using symbology to classify the data into desired percentages, performing some network analysis such as origin destination cost matrix to determine number of facilities that can be accessed from a chosen point.

To create a map that shows some facilities that can be accessed from a specific point, origin destination cost matrix can be performed. Move the cursor to the analysis tool > move to network analysis tool and click it > import the datasets in the destination, origin and set the desired parameters > click run to execute the analysis. The output will display some destinations and origin points as shown in a final map in image 5 below.

how to create destination map in arcgis
Image 6: Showing Origin destination map (school with easy access)


This tool is useful in creating new features around other features. To buffer a feature, click the edit > click modify features. In the modify features expand construct > navigate to buffer and click it. Click the template arrow > choose a template feature > in the buffer box type your desired distance to buffer > in the rings enter the number of multiple buffers > check preview and dissolve as well, also specify the shape of the buffer product > in the pane, click buffer.

buffering geoprocessing tool in arcgis
Image 7: Showing buffering geoprocessing in ArcGIS Pro.


Symbology analysis can also be used to create specific map that classify the data into a specific class. For instance, population data can be classified into upper and lower quartile to create a specific map like the one shown below.

arcgis pro map assignment
Image 8: Showing the highest quartile of population neighborhood in terms of fast food restaurants


Higher and lower density areas in a dataset can easily be identified through creating an area density map. For instance, in the map below, the density of fast food restaurants in Toronto is calculated using container approach. The output is as shown in image 9 below.

Image 9: Showing density of fast food restaurant in Toronto(per sq km).

Get Assistance with Creating Map in ArcGIS Pro from Expert ArcGIS Pro Tutors

Are you stuck with gis lab reports that require you to create maps using ArcGIS Pro? then worry no more. Our ArcGIS Pro assignment help will take you through step by step approach to creating well layout maps. Our expert GIS tutors are conversant with exporting maps, creating map layouts and map frames using ArcGIS Pro. You will also get to learn how to create map in ArcGIS Pro from finest analysts and cartographers online

Ultimate Guide: How To Write Article Review- Format, Types, Tips and Examples

Ultimate Guide: How to Write Article Review:- Format, Types, Tips and Examples

Have you ever read an article and thought, “I’ve got some thoughts on this piece?” Well, that’s where article reviews come in. An article review is a written evaluation of a published piece, where you summarize the content and analyze its strengths and weaknesses. Sounds cool, right?


But why should you care about writing article reviews? Well, they’re not only a fantastic way to sharpen your critical thinking skills but also an excellent opportunity to practice and improve your writing. Plus, they’re a common assignment in academia and can even help you build credibility as an expert in your field!

So, are you ready to become an article review superstar? This blog post has got you covered! We’ll go through the format, types, tips, and examples of article reviews, plus some common mistakes and how to avoid them. By the end of this post, you’ll have everything you need to write an A+.

Get to learn how article review assignment help team deliver A+ quality review assignment  . Let’s get started!


Format: The Blueprint of Your Article Review

A solid structure is the foundation of any great article review. Think of it as a blueprint that will guide you through the process and help you organize your thoughts. Ready to explore the key components? Let’s dive in!


Crafting the Perfect Title and Citation

Kick off your review with an attention-grabbing title that reflects the content of your review. You’ll also need to include the citation of the article you’re reviewing. Remember to follow the appropriate citation style (like APA, MLA, or Chicago) based on your requirements.


Introduction: Hook ’em with a Killer Opening

First impressions matter, so make sure your introduction is engaging and informative. Start with a hook, like a thought-provoking question, an interesting quote, or a surprising fact from the article.


Then, briefly introduce the article’s topic, author, and main argument. And don’t forget to mention the purpose of your review!


Using quotes or intriguing facts to engage readers

For example, if you’re reviewing an article about climate change, you could start with a shocking fact: “Did you know that the last decade was the hottest ever recorded on Earth?” This will instantly grab your readers’ attention and set the stage for the rest of your review.


Summary: Striking the balance between brevity and detail

Next up, provide a concise yet comprehensive summary of the article’s main points. Aim to capture the essence of the piece without drowning your readers in details. Keep it short, sweet, and to the point!


Analysis: Unleashing your inner critic

Now comes the fun part: analyzing the article! This is where you’ll flex your critical thinking muscles and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the piece. Discuss the author’s argumens, evidence, and writing style. Are they convincing? Is there anything missting or flawed? Be objective and fair in your assessment.


Conclusion: Ending on a high note

Wrap up your review by summarizing your main findings and offering your final thoughts on the article. What’s the overall impact of the piece? Is it a valuable contribution to the field? Don’t forget to include a call-to-action for your readers, encouraging them to read the article or share their own thoughts in the comments section.

Types of Article Reviews: Know Your Style

Not all article reviews are created equal. Depending on your goal, you might choose a different approach to reviewing an article. Let’s take a look at three common types of article reviews and when to use them:

1.     Descriptive Reviews: Painting the Picture

Descriptive reviews focus on providing a thorough summary of the article’s content. Your goal here is to give your readers a clear understanding of what the article is about and the author’s main arguments. This type of review is ideal when you want to inform your audience about a specific topic without diving too deep into a critical analysis.


For example, if you’re reviewing an article on a new scientific discovery, a descriptive review would help readers grasp the key findings and their implications.


2.     Critical Reviews

Critical reviews go beyond summarizing the content and dive into a deeper evaluation of the article. You’ll assess the author’s arguments, methodology, evidence, and writing style, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the piece.


This type of review is perfect when you want to offer a well-rounded critique and engage in a meaningful discussion about the topic.


For instance, if you’re reviewing a controversial opinion piece, a critical review would allow you to dissect the author’s arguments and present a balanced assessment.


3.     Comparative Reviews: The Ultimate Showdown

Comparative reviews involve analyzing two or more articles on a similar topic, comparing their approaches, arguments, and conclusions. This type of review is useful when you want to offer your readers a broader perspective on a subject and encourage them to explore multiple viewpoints.


Imagine you’re reviewing articles on different diets, like keto and paleo. A comparative review would enable you to highlight the similarities and differences between the two, helping readers make informed decisions about their nutritional choices.


Real-life examples for each type

  1. For more inspiration, check out these examples of each type of article review:


  1. Links to articles or blog posts that delve deeper into each type

Want to learn more about each type of article review? These resources have got you covered:

Now that you know the different types of article reviews, let’s move on to some tips that will help you excel in your review-writing adventure!

How to Write Article Review Like Expert Writer

Tips: Secrets to Writing an A+ Article Review

Mastering the art of article review writing doesn’t have to be a daunting task. With these tips in your arsenal, you’ll be well on your way to crafting an insightful and engaging review:


Tip #1: Be a thorough reader: why skimming won’t cut it

To write a top-notch review, you need to know the article inside out. Read it carefully, and don’t be afraid to read it more than once. Pay close attention to the author’s main arguments, evidence, and writing style. The better you understand the article, the more informed and effective your review will be.


Tip #2: Note-taking and organization: your secret weapons

As you read the article, take notes on the key points, arguments, and evidence. Jot down any questions, thoughts, or reactions you have while reading. Organizing your thoughts from the get-go will make the writing process smoother and ensure you don’t miss any crucial details in your review.

Tip #3: Authenticity: let your unique voice shine

Don’t be afraid to inject your own personality and writing style into your review. Your readers want to hear your voice and perspective, not a regurgitation of someone else’s thoughts. Be true to yourself, and your review will resonate with your audience.

Tip #4: Fairness: the art of objective analysis

When analyzing the article, it’s essential to remain objective and fair. Even if you don’t agree with the author’s viewpoint, strive to present a balanced assessment of their work. Recognize the article’s strengths and weaknesses without letting your personal biases cloud your judgment.

Tip #5: The polish: editing and proofreading your masterpiece

Before you hit “publish,” take the time to edit and proofread your review. Look for any spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors, as well as any awkward phrasings or inconsistencies in your argument. A polished review will not only be more enjoyable to read but also showcase your attention to detail and professionalism.


Top-notch proofreading hacks

Need some help with proofreading? This YouTube video offers some fantastic tips and tricks to catch those pesky errors and polish your writing to perfection


With these tips in mind, you’re ready to tackle any article review that comes your way. But before you put pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard), let’s take a look at some common mistakes to avoid and examples of great article reviews in action!


Oops! Common Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

Alright, friends, you’ve got the format, types, and tips for writing an amazing article review in your toolkit. But wait, there’s more! To truly rock your review, watch out for these common blunders and learn how to dodge ’em like a pro:


  1. Over-summarizing or under-analyzing

Strike the right balance between summarizing and analyzing. Keep your summary short and sweet, focusing on the article’s main points. Remember, the meat of your review is the analysis and evaluation, so don’t let the summary hog the spotlight!


  1. Forgetting the article’s context or background

Think big picture when reviewing an article. What’s the context or background behind the author’s arguments? Any hidden assumptions or biases? Tackling these aspects in your review will make your analysis richer and more insightful.


  1. Plagiarism pitfalls and how to steer clear

Always give credit where it’s due. Paraphrase or quote the article when needed, and don’t forget to cite your sources according to the proper citation style. Keep your review original and authentic to sidestep plagiarism.


  1. Getting too subjective or biased

Sure, your opinion matters, but keep your review as objective as possible. Don’t let your personal beliefs or biases cloud your judgment. Focus on offering a fair and balanced assessment of the article instead.


  1. Neglecting the importance of a well-structured review

A messy or poorly structured review can be super confusing for your readers. Stick to the format we chatted about earlier, and use clear headings and smooth transitions to guide your readers through your review.


And that’s it.  By dodging these common slip-ups, you’ll be on your way to crafting an article review that’s both engaging and informative. So, let’s roll up our sleeves and start writing!


A Step-by-Step Guide to Crafting Your Own Article Review

Now that you’ve learned the ins and outs of writing a top-notch article review, it’s time to get down to business.


Step 1: Review the article with a critical eye


Start by carefully reading the article you’ll be reviewing. Keep a critical eye on the content, and make sure you fully understand the author’s main points and arguments.


Step 2: Jot down your notes and organize your thoughts

As you read, take detailed notes on the article’s key elements. Organize your thoughts using headings and bullet points, so you can easily refer back to them when you’re writing your review. This will help you create a well-structured and focused piece.


Step 3: Draft your review, following the format and tips we discussed

Once you’ve got your notes and thoughts organized, start drafting your review. Remember the format we covered earlier, and use it as a guide for structuring your piece. Keep the tone engaging and informal, and make sure to follow the tips we discussed to avoid common mistakes.


Step 4: Add some flair with catchy headings, links, and multimedia

To make your review even more engaging and fun, spice things up with catchy headings and subheadings. Add links to other blogs or articles that support your points or offer additional insights. You can even include multimedia like images, infographics, or YouTube videos to illustrate your points and keep your readers hooked!

Step 5: Edit and proofread for a polished final product

Check for typos, grammatical errors, and inconsistencies in style or formatting. Make sure your review flows well and is easy to read. A polished final product will leave a lasting impression on your readers and demonstrate your expertise as a reviewer.


Step 6: Share your masterpiece and engage with your audience

Congratulations, you’ve created an awesome article review! Now it’s time to share your work with the world. Publish your review on your blog or platform of choice, and promote it on social media or through email newsletters. Engage with your audience by responding to comments and encouraging them to share their thoughts and opinions on the article. After all, the best reviews spark lively conversations and inspire further exploration of the topic.

Wrap Up!

With the right format, a clear understanding of the different types of reviews, and some handy tips, you can craft an engaging and informative review that’ll resonate with your audience. Remember to avoid common pitfalls, add some flair with multimedia and catchy headings, and most importantly, have fun with it!

16 Geoprocessing Tools Every GIS Analyst Should Know

16 Geoprocessing Tools To Use In GIS Homework Like GIS Pro

GIS involves utilization of tools in the GIS software to manage and analyze geographic(spatial) data. It mostly involves collection of data, processing and interpretation with an aim of creating maps. Other than possessing problem solving, team work, excellent communication and strong analytical skills; GIS Analysts must have knowledge of some basic geoprocessing tools.

Are you a student or newbie in using GIS software and would like learn to geoprocess like an expert GIS analyst? Well, you are at the right place. In this post, we have compiled an ultimate list of top 16 geoprocessing tools that GIS analysts at our GIS homework help service do use most.

You will learn basics as well as most common ways of processing GIS data that include clipping, buffering, merging, intersecting among others. Our comprehensive list of geoprocessing tools include tools that can be used in ArcGIS and QGIS softwares.

Geoprocessing tools are very essential when one wants to execute a certain analysis using the GIS software such ArcGIS or Qgis. Some of the most common geoprocessing tools that every GIS Analyst should know:

  1. Buffer tool
  2. Clip tool
  3. Merge Tool
  4. Dissolve tool
  5. Intersect Tool
  6. Union Tool
  7. The erase (Different) tool
  8. Spatial join tool
  9. Extract by Mask Tool
  10. Clip Raster Tool
  11. Extract by attributes tool
  12. Reclassify
  13. Project tool
  14. Near
  15. Calculate by Geometry
  16. Near

Buffer geoprocessing tool

This is a reclassification process based on distance inside or without a certain closeness. The output are normally polygons around input features at a given distance. Buffer geoprocessing process works in two ways: Euclidean and Geodesic.

Euclidean measures distances in 2D (Two-Dimensional) cartesian plane whereby the distances are calculated between two destinations on a cartesian plane (flat surface). It is ideal in analyzing distances around polygons that are focused in quite a small area.
Geodesic buffering calculates distances between two location or points on a geoid surface. The methods applied determine the kind of buffers created.

In ArcMap buffering can be performed through the following procedure: Click edit tool followed by clicking the feature where buffering is to be created around> click editor menu and then buffer> type the desired distance in map scale units> Select the target in which the new feature will be created> click ok.

geoprocessing tool
Figure 1: Showing Geoprocessing Buffer Tool


buffering process
Figure 2 Showing buffering process

Clipping geoprocessing in ArcGIS

This is creating a subset dataset from a larger dataset through cutting out a section of a certain dataset using a section or multiple of the features in another dataset. The clipping process is useful in choosing an area of interest or study area during spatial analysis. The clipping layer is always a polygon whereas the input layer can either be a polyline, points or polygons. Clipping can be performed both on vector and raster datasets. For Raster dataset, clipping is done using either graphics, data frame or polygons.

Clipping geoprocessing is as follows:

The first step involves clicking the edit tool on the editor tool bar

Clipping geoprocessing Tool
Figure 3: Showing Clipping geoprocessing Toll


Step two involves selecting the features to be clipped

clipping - geoprocessing tool
Figure 4: Showing the second step in clipping


Step 3 involves typing the input features, output features and the tolerance value. Click the type of clipping operation whether to maintain or discard, then Ok.

3rd step in Clipping geoprocessing
Figure 5: Showing the 3rd step in Clipping geoprocessing

Merge Geoprocessing Tool

Merging in ArcGIS involves combing chosen features of the same layer or multiple layers into a new single feature. The feature must be either from a polygon or a line layer. In addition, also data sets must be from the same data type. The selected feature can either be modified or preserved.

Merging process in ArcMap involves the following process: Clicking the edit tool bar followed by clicking the features you would like to merge. Click the merge tool then click the feature the features will be merged into and finally click Ok to execute the process.

merging tool
Figure 6: Showing merging tool



showing merging geoprocessing
Figure 7: Showing merging geoprocessing.

Dissolve Geoprocessing tool

Dissolving tool generalizes and simplifies boundaries from a more complex to a simple. In most cases this tool adjacent edges on a common attribute values basis. The edges(boundaries) will melts into one only if the neighboring polygons share the similar dissolving attribute.

In ArcMap, dissolving tool can be accessed in the data management tool in the generalization toolset. It involves setting the fields that you would like to dissolve. To perform the dissolving geoprocessing: Click Arctoolbox> data management tool > Generalization > Dissolve > double click it. In the new window pane that appears > input files > output files will be selected automatically > Dissolve > Ok.

location dissolve tool in the Arctoolbox
Figure 8: Showing the location of Dissolve tool in the Arctoolbox


dissolving geoprocessing
Figure 9: Showing Dissolving geoprocessing.


Intersect Tool

This tool calculates a geometric connection of the input features. In most cases, percentages or features of the feature that overlay in all layers or feature classes will be inscribed to the output(product) feature class. While performing this analysis it is advisable that the input features simple one like point, polygon or polyline.

To perform this analysis in ArcMap, go the toolbar > geoprocessing > intersect > enter the input feature, out put feature class, join attributes, tolerance attribute, output type > click Ok.

intersect geoprocessing tool
Figure 10: Showing intersect geoprocessing


Union Geoprocessing Tool

The Union geoprocessing performs calculation of geometric union of whatever number of feature layers and classes. All input feature layers or classes must polygons in order for the output feature class to comprise polygons representative of geometric union of all involvements as well as the all the fields from all the input feature classes. Furthermore, union tool controls the spatial reference, clusters and cracks the features, determines geometric relationsamongst features from all feature classes and inscribes new features to the output.

To perform Union geoprocessing in ArcMap: Go to geoprocessing > navigate to union > click union > input the features > click Ok to execute the analysis.

union geoprocessing
Figure 11: Showing union geoprocessing.


Erase Geoprocessing Tool

Erase tool generates a product feature class by overlapping the input features with the erase features. Only those percentages of the input features falling exterior of the erase features are copied to the product feature class.

To carry out erasing geoprocessing in ArcMap: Go to geoprocessing> navigate to search > type and search erase geoprocessing tool > Enter input features > enter erase features > enter output feature class > enter tolerance > click Ok to execute the analysis.

Erase geoprocessing tool
Figure 12: Showing erase geoprocessing.


Spatial Join Geoprocessing Tool

This tool joins attributes from one feature to another grounded on the spatial connection. The target features and the merged attributes from the combined features are inscribed in the product feature class. All attributes of the merge features are added to attributes of the target features and cliched over to the output feature class. In the process attributes to be written to the output can be defined.

Spatial join analysis can be carried out in ArcMap as follows: Click on the geoprocessing> navigate to search > type spatial join tool > click the tool > enter the target feature, join features, click Ok to execute the analysis.

spatial join geoprocessing tool
Figure 13: Showing spatial join geoprocessing.


Extract by Mask

This is a spatial analysis function that extracts the cells of a raster that correspond to the areas defined by a mask. Attributes from the input raster will be carried over to the output raster attribute table.

To perform extract by mask analysis in ArcMap, the following steps are followed: Click the geoprocessing and navigate to the search > type extract by mask > click the tool> input the Raster data, input the feature mask data, enter the output raster > Click Ok to execute the function.

Showing Extract by Mask Analysis
Figure 14 Showing Extract by Mask Analysis


Clip Raster Geoprocessing

The Clip Raster tool permits the extraction of a percentage of a raster dataset on the basis of a template extent. The clip product comprises of any pixels that interconnect the template extent.

Clip Raster geoprocessing is carried out in ArcMap as follows: Enable image analysis Toolbar > image analysis > select the Raster to clip > enter polygon boundary to clip to > Click clip icon > click save to export Raster.

Clip Raster geoprocessing tool
Figure 15: Showing Clip Raster geoprocessing


Extract by Attributes Geoprocessing

This function involves extraction of the cells of a raster on a logical query basis. Attributes from the input raster dataset are normally passed over to the product raster attribute table. Liable on the property presence documented, part of the attribute values may require to be recalculated.

In ArcMap, extract by attribute analysis can be performed as follows: Click on geoprocessing > Navigate to search and type “extract by attributes” > Navigate to the tool > enter input raster, enter the “where value cluster”, enter the output raster > click Ok to perform the analysis.

Showing the extract by attributes geoprocessing
Figure 16: Showing the extract by attributes geoprocessing.

Figure 15: Showing the extract by attributes geoprocessing.

Reclassify geoprocessing tool

Reclassify tool deals with values in a raster. The tool reclassifies the values in a raster. It uses some parameters such as “classify or unique” generates map based on the values of the input raster dataset.
Reclassify geoprocessing can be performed as follows in the ArcMap: On the geoprocessing navigate to search > enter “reclassify” > click on the tool analysis > enter the input raster, enter the reclass field, enter reclassification (whether unique or classify), enter the output raster > click Ok to execute the function.

reclass geoprocessing tool
Figure 17: Showing reclass geoprocessing

Project Geoprocessing Tool

Project geoprocessing tool is useful in projecting spatial data from one coordinate system to another. To perform this in the ArcMap, the following steps are followed: Go to Arctoolbox > Data management > projection and transformation > project > enter the input dataset or feature class, output dataset or feature class, output coordinate system > Click Ok to execute the function.

showing project geoprocessing tool
Figure 18: Showing project geoprocessing tool.

Near geoprocessing Tool

Near(analysis) tool helps the GIS Analyst to compute distance and extra nearness info between the input features and the nearby feature in another layer or feature class. To perform “near analysis” in ArcMap, the following steps are useful: On the geoprocessing navigate to the search > type “near analysis” > On the appeared tab enter the: Input features, near feature, enter the method and click Ok to execute the function.

Showing near(analysis) geoprocessing
Figure 19 Showing near(analysis) geoprocessing

Calculate by geometry geoprocessing tool

Calculate by geometry can be utilized by any GIS analyst when they want to add info to a feature’s attribute fields in place of geometric features and location of each feature like area or length, elevation and x-y coordinates.

To carry out “calculate by geometry” in ArcMap, the following steps can be followed: go to the geoprocessing and navigate to search > click and type “calculate by geometry” > click in the “add geometry attributes”> enter input features, geometry properties, length unit, area unit > click Ok to execute the function.

Showing calculate by geometry geoprocessing
Figure 20 Showing calculate by geometry geoprocessing


Introduction to arcgis pro (no date) Introduction to ArcGIS Pro-ArcGIS Pro | Documentation. Available at: https://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-app/latest/get-started/get-started.htm (Accessed: April 3, 2023).